Topics with syllabus and resources
- What is Living
- Meaning and Definition of Living and Characteristics of Life
- All living organisms grow,Reproduction, metabolism, cellular organisation
- Diversity in the Living World
- Generic name and the specific epithet
- Binomial nomenclature
- Taxonomic Categories
- Introduction-taxonomic category, taxonomic hierarchy
- Three Domains of Life
- Taxonomical Aids
Tools for study of taxonomy :- Museums, Zoological parks, Herbaria, Botanical gardens, Key
What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanicalgardens
- Characteristics of living organisms. Biodiversity (definition only). Need for classification should be discussed. Three domains of life – distinguishing features of (archaea, bacteria, eukarya), - a brief idea of the role of different types of archaebacteria (methanogens, halophiles and thermoacidophiles in their extreme environments, mycoplasma – three distinctive features).
- Definition and explanation of the terms taxonomy and systematics. Concept of species. Major taxonomical hierarchies (phylum, class, order, family, genus, species): definition and examples with reference to classification of man, house fly, mango and wheat.
- Rules of binomial nomenclature and advantages of using scientific names. Aids for study of taxonomy –– a very brief idea of museum and herbaria, zoological parks and botanical gardens. Definition of taxonomical keys
- Three systems of classification – artificial, natural and phylogenetic
- Introduction of Biological Classification
- Five Kingdom Classification
Classification of living organisms
- Kingdom Monera
- Salient features and classification of Monera
- Eubacteria :-Mycoplasma, Chemosynthetic autotrophic,Heterotrophic bacteria
- Kingdom Animalia
Salient features and classification of Animalia
- Viruses, Viroids and Lichens
- Definitions, characters, types with examples, Economic importance and list of viral diseases
- Biological Classification (Problems)
Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
- Five-kingdom system of classification and characteristics of different kingdoms with examples.
- Kingdom Monera Bacteria - classification of bacteria according to shape, nutrition and mode of respiration; types of reproduction – definition of fission, conjugation, transduction and transformation (details not required). Economic importance with reference to role of bacteria in sewage treatment, antibiotics, energy production and house hold products (curd and cheese only)
- Kingdom Protista – only two general characteristics and two examples of subgroups:
- Slime moulds
- Protozoans (to be studied under rhizopods, flagellates, ciliates and sporozoans with two characteristics including modes of locomotion and two examples of each).
4. Kingdom Fungi: general characteristics and mode of reproduction of each (including types of spores and sexual reproduction – definition of isogamy, anisogamy, oogamy, plasmogamy, karyogamy and dikaryophase). Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes - characteristics with examples. Role of fungi in the field of medicine, bakery and environmental decomposition. Definition of lichens and mycorrhiza (ecto and endo).
Life cycles not required
5. Virus (characteristic features – link between living and non-living, structure of TMV and bacteriophage and contribution of the following scientists: D.J. Ivanowsky, M.W. Beijerinck, W.M. Stanley) and Viroid (definition only)
- Introduction of Plant Kingdom
- natural classification systems, phylogenetic classification systems
- Classification System - Artificial and Natural
- Phylogenetic Classification System
- Sub Classification of Plantae
- Concept of Algae
- characteristics (morphology, common name, major pigments, stored food, composition of cell wall, flagellar number and position of insertion, habitat, mode of sexual reproduction – isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous) and examples of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic importance of algae
- zoospores, isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous, algin, carrageen,The algae are divided into three main classes: Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae
- Chlorophyceae - green algae
- Phaeophyceae - brown algae
- Rhodophyceae - red algae
- Concept of Bryophyta
- general characteristics, distinctive features of liverworts and mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of Funaria with reference to alternation of generations.
- Economic Importance of Bryophytes
- Introduction - gametophyte, antheridium, antherozoids, sporophyte,he bryophytes are divided
- Liverworts - gemmae (sing. gemma). Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds
- Mosses - protonema,leafy stage
- characteristics; classification into classes:- psilopsida (Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella, Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical pteridophyte (fern). Definition of homospory and heterospory with relevant examples. Economic importance.
- sporophylls,prothallus,homosporous,heterosporous,seed habit
- general characteristics and graphic outline of life cycle of a typical gymnosperm (Pinus).
- Economic importance.
- mycorrhiza,Gymnosperms:(a) Cycas(b) Pinus (c) Ginkgo
- Classification Upto Class, Characteristic Features and Examples
- flowers, dicotyledons, monocotyledons,double fertilisation
- Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations
- Comparison of life cycle patterns of different plant groups (haplontic, diplontic and haplo-diplontic)
- Algae - characteristics (morphology, common name, major pigments, stored food, composition of cell wall, flagellar number and position of insertion, habitat, mode of sexual reproduction – isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous) and examples of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic importance of algae – any five
- Bryophyta – general characteristics, distinctive features of liverworts and mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of Funaria with reference to alternation of generations. Economic importance of bryophytes
- Pteridophyta: characteristics; classification into classes: psilopsida (Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella, Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical pteridophyte (fern). Definition of homospory and heterospory with relevant examples. Economic importance.
- Gymnosperms: general characteristics and graphic outline of life cycle of a typical gymnosperm (Pinus). Economic importance.
- Angiosperms – general characteristics and classification into monocots and dicots; Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical angiosperm.
- Comparison of life cycle patterns of different plant groups (haplontic, diplontic and haplo-diplontic)
- Introduction of Animal Kingdom
Salient Features and Classification of Animals
- Animal Construction
Animal construction :- body plan (cell aggregate plan, blind-sac plan and tube-within-tube plan), symmetry (spherical, radial and bilateral symmetry), coelom development (diploblastic and triploblastic organisation in animals, acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate and haemocoelomate), segmentation
- Classification of Animals (Non-chordata)
- five distinguishing characters with two examples of Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda (Aschelminthes), Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata
- Phylum – Porifera - Examples of Porifera : (a) Sycon (b) Euspongia (c) Spongilla
- Phylum – Coelenterata (Cnidaria) - Examples of Coelenterata indicating outline of their body form : (a) Aurelia (Medusa) (b) Adamsia (Polyp)
- Phylum – Ctenophora - sea walnuts or comb jellies
- Phylum – Platyhelminthes - Tape worm and Liver fluke
- Phylum – Aschelminthes - Aschelminthes– Roundworm
- Phylum – Annelida - Nereis and Hirudinaria
- Phylum – Arthropoda - Locust, Butterfly, Scorpion, Prawn
- Phylum – Mollusca - Pila, Octopus
- Phylum – Echinodermata - Asterias, Ophiura
- Phylum – Hemichordata - Balanoglossus and Saccoglossus
- Classification of Animals - Phylum – Chordata
- sub-classification of Chordata with reference to notochord - sub phyla Urochordata, Cephalochordata. Vertebrata (classes – cyclostomata, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and mammalia) – three distinguishing characters with two examples of each).
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Cyclostomata :- jawless vertebrate - Petromyzon
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Chondrichthyes :- Scoliodon and Pristis
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Osteichthyes :-Examples of Bony fishes : (a) Hippocampus (b) Catla
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Amphibia :- Salamandra and Rana
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Reptilia :- Chameleon, Crocodilus, Chelone, Naja
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Aves :- Neophron, Struthio, Psittacula, Pavo
- Phylum – Chordata-Class – Mammalia :- Ornithorhynchus, Macropus, Pteropus, Balaenoptera
- Animal Kingdom (Questions)
Animal construction - body plan (cell aggregate plan, blind-sac plan and tube-within-tube plan), symmetry (spherical, radial and bilateral symmetry), coelom development (diploblastic and triploblastic organisation in animals, acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate and haemocoelomate), segmentation
- Non-chordata - five distinguishing characters with two examples of Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda (Aschelminthes), Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata
- Chordata – sub-classification of Chordata with reference to notochord - sub phyla Urochordata, Cephalochordata. Vertebrata (classes – cyclostomata, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and mammalia) – three distinguishing characters with two examples of each).
- Morphology and Modifications of Root, Stem, Leaf
- Types of Roots (Tap, Fibrous, Adventitious), Regions
- Modifications of Roots for Storage, Respiration (Pneumatophores) and Support (Stilt and Prop)
features (nodes internodes, buds)
- Stem and Modifications of Stems
parts of a simple leaf, venation
- Types of Leaves (Simple and Compound – Pinnate and Palmate)
- Phyllotaxy – Alternate, Opposite, Whorled (With an Example of Each)
- Modifications for Mechanical Support, Protection, Storage, Reproduction; Insectivorous Plant (Pitcher Plant, Venus-fly-trap
- Morphology of Flower, Fruit and Seed
- Types of Inflorescence (Racemose and Cymose)
- Structure of a Typical Flower
Structure of a typical flower, bracteates/ebracteate, [symmetry (actinomorphic, zygomorphic), trimerous/tetramerous/pentamerous complete/ incomplete, non-essential whorls (calyx: gamosepalous, polysepalous, corolla: gamopetalous, polysepalous, perianth), essential whorls (androecium: cohesion - syngenesious, synandrous, monadelphous, diadelphous, polyadelphous; adhesion – epipetalous, epiphyllous; number of lobes – monothecous, dithecous; Gynoecium: position of ovary – epigynous, hypogynous, perigynous, cohesion – apocarpous, syncarpous, number of locules – unilocular, bilocular, multilocular]
- Fruits to Be Classified into True and False, Structure of a Typical Fruit (Mango and Coconut)
- Seeds :- Structure of Dicot (Bean) and Monocot (Maize)
- Non-Albuminous and Albuminous, Perisperm
- Description of Families – Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae
Morphology and modifications of root, stem, leaf
- Types of roots (tap, fibrous, adventitious), regions, modifications of roots for storage, respiration (pneumatophores) and support (stilt and prop).
- Stems – features (nodes internodes, buds), modifications – underground, aerial and sub-aerial.
- Leaves - parts of a simple leaf, venation, types of leaves (simple and compound – pinnate and palmate), phyllotaxy – alternate, opposite, whorled (with an example of each).
- Modifications for mechanical support, protection, storage, reproduction; insectivorous plant (pitcher plant, Venus-fly-trap
Morphology of flower, fruit and seed
- Structure of a typical flower, types of inflorescence (racemose and cymose).
- Structure of a typical flower, bracteates/ebracteate, [symmetry (actinomorphic, zygomorphic), trimerous/tetramerous/pentamerous complete/ incomplete, non-essential whorls (calyx: gamosepalous, polysepalous, corolla: gamopetalous, polysepalous, perianth), essential whorls (androecium: cohesion - syngenesious, synandrous, monadelphous, diadelphous, polyadelphous; adhesion – epipetalous, epiphyllous; number of lobes – monothecous, dithecous; Gynoecium: position of ovary – epigynous, hypogynous, perigynous, cohesion – apocarpous, syncarpous, number of locules – unilocular, bilocular, multilocular], types of inflorescence (racemose and cymose – definition and differences; subtypes not required).
- Fruits to be classified into true and false, structure of a typical fruit (mango and coconut).
- Seeds – structure of dicot (bean) and monocot (maize), non-albuminous and albuminous, perisperm.
- Description of families – Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae
- Types of Plant Tissues :- Meristematic Tissues
Characteristics of meristematic tissue
Classification of meristems based on origin and location
- Types of Plant Tissues :- Permanent Tissues
Structure, Function and Location of permanent tissues;
Simple (parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma) and Complex (xylem and phloem) tissues
- Tissue System
- Internal Structure of Root, Stem, and Leaf
- Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem and Dicot Root (With the Help of Outline Diagrams)
- Formation of Annual Rings
- Activity of the Cambium and Cork Cambium
- Formation of Secondary Tissues
- Differences Between Heart Wood and Sap Wood
- Early Wood and Late Wood
- Definition of Bark
(a) Plant Tissues :- types of plant tissues: Meristematic tissues: classification of meristematic tissue. Permanent Tissues: structure and function of simple tissues (parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma) and complex tissues (xylem and phloem), tissue system. Internal structure of root, stem, and leaf.
- Characteristics of meristematic tissue; classification of meristems based on origin and location; structure, function and location of permanent tissues; simple and complex tissues; epidermal, ground and vascular tissue systems.
Cellular diagrams of T.S. of roots and stem and V.S. of monocot and dicot leaves are required.
(b) Secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot root
- Basic idea of how secondary growth takes place in dicot stems and roots (with the help of outline diagrams) and formation of annual rings. Activity of the cambium and cork cambium, formation of secondary tissues, differences between heart wood and sap wood, early wood and late wood. Definition of bark.
- Introduction of Structural Organisation in Animals
- Animal Tissues - Epithelial Tissues
- with the help of diagrams
- Epithelial Tissues - Simple Epithelium (Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar, Ciliated, Glandular)
- Epithelial Tissues - Compound Epithelium (Stratified)
- Animal Tissues - Connective Tissue
with the help of diagrams
- Animal Tissues - Muscular Tissue
with the help of diagrams
- Animal Tissues - Neural Tissue
Nervous Tissue and Structure of a Neuron
(types – unipolar, bipolar, multipolar, myelinated, non-myelinated). Neuroglial cells.
- Anatomy of Cockroach
Anatomy and Functions of Different Systems of an Insect (Cockroach) (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive)
- Anatomy of Cockroach
- Location, Structure and Functions of Epithelial Tissues with Examples
- Types of Junctions
(tight, adhering and gap junctions)
- Location and General Structure of Areolar Tissue
- Difference Between Bone and Cartilage
- T.S. of Hyaline Cartilage and Bone
(to be taught with the help of diagrams)
- Different Types of Muscles and Their Functions
- Epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues to be taught with the help of diagrams.
- Location, structure and functions of epithelial tissues with examples, types of junctions (tight, adhering and gap junctions) location and general structure of areolar tissue - functions of different types of cells; difference between bone and cartilage; T.S. of hyaline cartilage, T.S of bone, (to be taught with the help of diagrams); different types of muscles and their functions; structure of a neuron (types – unipolar, bipolar, multipolar, myelinated, non-myelinated). Neuroglial cells.
- Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach) - a brief account only
- Cell Theory
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life
- Structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
- Plant Cell and Animal Cell
- Structure and Functions of Cell Envelope, Cell Membrane, Cell Wall, Cell Organelles
- Eukaryotic Cells
- Endomembrane System
- The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
- Golgi apparatus
- Structure of mitochondrion (Longitudinal section)
- Endomembrane System
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall (including definition of plasmodesmata); cell organelles – ultrastructure and function; endomembrane system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles), mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles; nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Historical aspects, cell theory, size and shape of cells; general structure of prokaryotic cell; differences between gram +ve and gram –ve bacteria.
- General structure of eukaryotic cell, ultra- structure and function of cell wall, cell membrane (description of fluid mosaic model; functions of the plasma membrane: active and passive transport, brief explanation of facilitated diffusion (uniport, symport and antiport) with one example.
- Mitochondria, nucleus (structure and types of chromosomes on the basis of the position of centromere, satellite), types of plastids, endomembrane system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes and vacuoles), ribosomes, microbodies, cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella and centrioles; difference between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell, plant and animal cell, microfilaments and microtubules, flagella and cilia
- Structure of Proteins
Structure and Function of Proteins
amino acids – (structure: glycine, alanine, serine)
amino acids as zwitter-ion
examples of acidic, basic, neutral, sulphur containing amino acids
essential and nonessential amino acids
levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary)
functions of proteins
- Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
General classification and functions of:- monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and deoxyribose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose and sucrose), polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose, inulin, and chitin).
- Structure and Function of Lipids
classification, structure and functions of fats and oils
- Nucleic Acids
- Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids
- structure and function of DNA. Differences between DNA and RNA.
- Enzymes - Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
- Factors affecting Enzyme Activity - Temperature, pH, substrate concentration
Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes.
- Carbohydrates: general classification and functions of: monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and deoxyribose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose and sucrose), polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose, inulin, and chitin).
- Proteins: amino acids – (structure: glycine, alanine, serine); amino acids as zwitter-ion; examples of acidic, basic, neutral, sulphur containing amino acids; essential and nonessential amino acids; levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary); functions of proteins.
- Lipids: classification, structure and functions of fats and oils.
- Nucleotides and Nucleic acids: structure and function of DNA. Differences between DNA and RNA.
- Enzymes: general properties, nomenclature and classification of enzymes according to type of reactions, co-factors (prosthetic groups, coenzymes and metal ions. Factors affecting enzyme activity - temperature, pH, substrate concentration. Competitive inhibitors
- Introduction of Transport in Plants
- Movement of Water, Gases and Nutrients
- Cell to Cell Transport
- Means of Transport
- Active Transport
- Active and Passive Transport
- Active Transport
- Plant-water Relations
- Water Potential
- Solute Potential
- Pressure Potential
- Water Potential
- Introduction of Long Distance Transport of Water
- Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients
- Opening and Closing of Stomata
- Diffusion of Gases
- Transport in Plants (Numericals)
Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water - absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - transport of food - phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.
- Definition of imbibition; factors affecting imbibition; importance of imbibition, characteristics and significance of diffusion; osmosis - endosmosis and exosmosis; significance of osmosis and turgidity - osmotic pressure, turgor pressure, wall pressure; definition of turgidity, plasmolysis, deplasmolysis, importance of water; active and passive absorption of water; apoplastic and symplastic movements, definition of water potential and its components viz. solute, matrix and pressure potential (numerical problems based on this concept are not required).
- Root pressure – definition and experiment to demonstrate it. Explanation and definition of transpiration, significance of transpiration. Stomatal mechanism – starch sugar inter conversion and K+ -ion mechanism. Mechanism of ascent of sap by cohesion – tension and transpiration pull theory. Guttation – definition, differences between transpiration and guttation. Function of stomata, lenticel and hydathode. Mineral uptake by active and passive transport.
- Transport of solutes; evidences which indicate that downward movement of organic solutes takes place in phloem; girdling and tracer techniques, mechanism of translocation; mass flow hypothesis.
- Introduction of Mineral Nutrition
- Elementary Idea of Hydroponics
- Essential Mineral Elements
- Macro and Micro Nutrients and Their Role
- Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium,Calcium,Magnesium,Sulphur,Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum, Chlorine
- Macro and Micro Nutrients and Their Role
- Nitrogen Metabolism
- Metabolism of Nitrogen
- Nitrogen Cycle
- Nitrogen Fixation
- Nitrification and Denitrification
- Ammonification and Nitrogen Cycle
- Nitrogen Cycle
- Nitrogen to Ammonia Conversion and Nitrogenase
Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Criteria for essentiality of minerals, hydroponics, macro and micronutrients; role and deficiency symptoms (hunger signs) of various elements. Mineral toxicity
- Root nodule formation, biological nitrogen fixation, non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (such as Rhizobium and Azospirillum). Role of cyanobacteria such as Azolla, Anabaena, Nostoc; importance of nitrogenase complex and leghaemoglobin pigment. Nitrogen cycle (graphic outline).
- Early Experiments - (Photosynthesis)
- Photosynthesis in Higher Plants (Introduction and Experiments)
- Photosynthesis Reaction
- Electron Transport - Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation
- Light-dependent Reactions (Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photophosphorylation)
- Pigments Are Involved in Photosynthesis
- difference between chlorophyll ‘a’&‘b’, carotenoids and xanthophyll
- Pigments Involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary Idea)
- Photochemical and Biosynthetic Phases of Photosynthesis
C3 and C4 pathways
- Photosynthesis as a Mean of Autotrophic Nutrition
- Site of Photosynthesis
- Light-independent Reactions
- Factors Affecting Photosynthesis
- Light,Carbon dioxide oncentration,Temperature,Water
Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Contributions of Priestley, Sachs, Engelmann, van Neil; differences between absorption and action spectra
- Brief idea of photosynthetic pigments (difference between chlorophyll ‘a’&‘b’, carotenoids and xanthophyll), photochemical phase - pigment systems, cyclic and non- cyclic photophosphorylation, chemiosmotic hypothesis; biosynthetic phase - C3 and C4 cycles – graphic representation in correct sequence (carboxylation, glycolytic reversal and regeneration of pentose); Differences between C3 and C4 plants, C3 and C4 cycles, Photosystems I and II, Photorespiration pathway in brief - explanation of how RuBP carboxylase acts as RuBP oxygenase. Kranz anatomy. Blackman’s Law of limiting factors, factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Introduction of Respiration in Plants
- Cellular Respiration - Glycolysis
- Exchange of Gases - in Plants
- Oxidation of Pyruvate
- Conept of Aerobic Respiration
- Kreb'S Cycle
- Aerobic Respiration - Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
- Energy Relations - Number of ATP Molecules Generated
- Fermentation (Anaerobic)
- Respiratory Quotient
- Respiratory Quotient of Nutrients
- Amphibolic Pathways
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations - number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
- Types of respiration; mechanism of respiration: glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, Krebs’ cycle, ETS (only flowchart). Oxidative phosphorylation – definition; Brief idea of fermentation and Amphibolic pathway. Definition of respiratory quotient and RQ values of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
- Introduction of Plant Growth and Development
- Plant Growth Generally is Indeterminate
- Determinate and Indeterminate Growth
- Phases of Growth
- Phases of Plant Growth
- Plant Growth Generally is Indeterminate
- Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation
- Plant Growth Regulators
- Seed Germination
Types, and conditions for seed germination
- Concept of Development
- Sequence of Developmental Processes in a Plant Cell
- Seed Dormancy
Seed germination; phases of plant growth; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.
- A brief idea about differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. Phases of growth in meristems, growth rate – definition; measurement of growth by direct method and use of auxanometer, factors affecting growth.
- Discovery and physiological role of growth regulators in plants (such as auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene and abscisic acid –four effects of each); application of growth regulators, Definition of dormancy and quiescence; causes and methods of breaking seed dormancy.
- Photomorphogenesis in plants
- A brief idea of short day, long day and day neutral plants; critical day length, definition and differences between photoperiodism and vernalisation.
- Digestive System
- Role of Digestive Enzymes and Gastrointestinal Hormones
- Peristalsis, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation of Proteins, Carbohydrates and Fats
- Calorific Values of Proteins
- Calorific Values of Carbohydrates
- Calorific Values of Fats
- Disorders of Digestive System
- Nutritional and Digestive Disorders - PEM, Indigestion, Constipation, Vomiting, Jaundice, Diarrhoea
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes; peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders.
- Calorific value of carbohydrates, proteins and fats per gram; Structure and functions of the digestive organs and their associated glands, types of dentition (thecodont, heterodont, diphyodont) and dental formula of human; diagram of the digestive system with correct position of the organs and the associated glands
- diagrammatic representation of T.S. of gut showing the four layers - histology of individual organs not required; physiology of digestion and absorption of food; assimilation of digested food; disorders of the digestive system – Protein Energy Malnutrition ( PEM), indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice,diarrhoea.
- Introduction of Breating and Exchange of Gases
- Respiratory Organs
- Respiratory Organs in Animals
- gills, lungs
- Respiratory Organs - Human Respiratory System
- pharynx, trachea, sound box, bronchi, bronchioles,alveoli
- Mechanism of Breathing
- Mechanism of Breathing and Its Regulation in Humans
- Respiratory Volumes and Capacities
- Tidal Volume (TV), Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV),Residual Volume (RV), Inspiratory Capacity (Ic), Expiratory Capacity (EC), Functional Residual Capacity (FRC), Vital Capacity (VC), Total Lung Capacity
- Exchange of Gases
- Exchange of Gases - in Humans
- Transport of Gases - Transport of Oxygen
- Disorders of Respiratory System
- Disorders Related to Respiration - Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational Respiratory Disorders
- Regulation of Respiration
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volumes; disorders related to respiration.
- Organs involved in respiration; mechanism of pulmonary gas exchange; breathing process should be explained showing the action of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, regulation of respiration; transport of oxygen in the blood, oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve; transport of CO2; chloride shift, pulmonary air volumes and lung capacities; disorders of respiratory system such as - asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
- Introduction of Body Fluids and Circulation
- Coagulation of Blood
- Composition, Components and Coagulation of Blood
- Blood Groups
- ABO grouping
- Rh Grouping, Rh Incompatibility
- Coagulation of Blood
- Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
- Composition of Lymph and Its Function
- Circulatory Pathways
- Human Circulatory System
- Circulatory System in Animals, Humans and Structure of Human Heart and Blood Vessels
- Human Circulatory System
- Double Circulation
- Regulation of Cardiac Activity
- Disorders of Circulatory System
- Disorders of Circulatory System - Hypertension, Coronary Artery Disease, Angina Pectoris and Heart Failure
- Cardiac Output
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system.
- Difference between closed and open vascular system; external and internal structure of heart; working of the heart and blood flow through the heart during different phases should be described under the following headings - auricular systole, auricular diastole, ventricular systole, ventricular diastole and joint diastole; definition of cardiac output, regulation of heart beat, ECG; arterial blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), double circulation.
- The internal structure of artery, vein and capillary. Importance of ABO groups in blood transfusion, Rh factor and its importance in transfusion and pregnancy; clotting of blood to be taught briefly; lymphatic system – a brief idea of lymph, lymphatic capillaries and lymph nodes; disorders of the circulatory system such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris and heart failure
- Modes of Excretion - Ammonotelism
- Modes of Excretion - Ureotelism
- Modes of Excretion - Uricotelism
- Human Excretory System
- Structure and Function of Human Excretory System
- Urine Formation
- Urine Composition and Formation
- glomerular filtration, ultra filtration, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), reabsorption
- Regulation of Kidney Function
- Regulation of Kidney Function - Reninangiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes Inspidus
- Role of Other Organs in Excretion
- kidneys, lungs, liver and skin
- Disorders of the Excretory System
Disorders - uremia, hemodialysis, renal failures, Renal calculi, Glomerulonephritis, Nephritis
- Dialysis and Artificial Kidney
Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function, renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of erythropoietin; role of other organs in excretion; disorders of the excretory system - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Define, differentiate and explain the terms ammonotelism, ureotelism and uricotelism; external and internal structure of the kidney (L.S.); structure of nephron; physiology of urine formation - ultra filtration, selective reabsorption and active (tubular) secretion. Counter current system, regulation of urine formation, renin-angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH. Role of erythropoietin.
- Role of skin, liver and lungs in excretion. Homeostasis – definition. Disorders of the excretory system - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis.
- Haemodialysis and artificial kidney
- Introduction of Locomotion and Movement
- Types of Movement
Ciliary, Flagellar, Muscular and Amoeboid
- Concept of Muscle
- Muscle - Skeletal Muscle, Contractile Proteins and Muscle Contraction
- Skeletal muscles, Visceral muscles, smooth muscles (nonstriated muscle).
- Skeletal System
- Skeletal System and Its Functions
- Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System
- Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System - Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular Dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout
Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscles - contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system.
- Locomotion: Basic aspects of human skeleton (number and names of the bones of axial and appendicular skeleton).
- Functions of human skeleton; different types of joints - their location and function; general properties of muscles; structure of skeletal muscle - sliding filament theory of muscle contraction; chemical events during muscle contraction; definition of summation, tetanus, rigor mortis, differences between red and white muscles.
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system:
- Myasthenia gravis
- Muscular dystrophy
- Neural System
- Neuron and Nerves
- Human Neural System
- Central Nervous System
- Peripheral Nervous System
- Visceral Nervous System
- Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse
- Reflex Action and Reflex Arc
Voluntary and involuntary actions – meaning with examples.
Diagrammatic explanation of the reflex arc, showing the pathway from receptor to effector.
Differences between natural and acquired reflex
- Sensory Perception
- Sense Organs
- Sensory Reception and Processing
- Eye - Parts of an Eye
- Elementary Structure and Functions of Eye
- sclera.,cornea,choroid,ciliary body, iris, lens, pupil, retina,rods and cones, optic nerves, blind spot, fovea, aqueous chamber.vitreous chamber
- Concept of the Ear
- Elementary Structure and Functions of Ear
- pinna,external auditory meatus,tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window ,Eustachian tube, abyrinth,cochlea
- Eye - Parts of an Eye
Neuron and nerves; nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.
- Structure and functions of various parts of the brain and spinal cord; conduction of nerve impulses through nerve fibre (non myelinated and myelinated) and through synapse; physiology of reflex action, natural reflex and conditioned reflex - definition, examples and differences; reflex arc to be taught with diagram showing the pathway by means of arrows; eye and ear: structure and working to be done along with the help of diagrams.
- Elementary idea of nose (olfactory receptor) and tongue (gustato receptor).
- Introduction of Chemical Coordination and Integration
- Endocrine Glands and Hormones
- Human Endocrine System
- Mechanism of Hormone Action
- Mechanism of Hormone Action (Elementary Idea)
- Role of Hormones as Messengers and Regulators
- Hypo and Hyperactivity and Related Disorders - Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, Goiter, Exophthalmic Goiter, Diabetes, Addison'S Disease
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus, Grave’s disease, Addison's disease.
- Brief idea of location of endocrine glands; role of hypothalamus; hormones secreted by different lobes of pituitary and their functions; feedback control of tropic hormones to be discussed giving examples; hormones of pineal, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal glands, GI tract (gastrin, secretin, GIP, CCK-PZ) and gonads; mechanism of hormone action (through cAMP and steroid hormones only); effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion of various hormones of the above mentioned glands.
- Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.
Question Papers For All Subjects
- English 2019 to 2019
- Physics (Theory) 2019 to 2019
- Chemistry (Theory) 2019 to 2019
- Biology (Theory) 2019 to 2019
- Computer Science (Theory) 2019 to 2019
- English (Literature in English) 2019 to 2020