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Biology Class 10 ICSE CISCE Topics and Syllabus

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Academic year:

Topics with syllabus and resources

1.00 Basic Biology

 

 

1.10 Genetics – Some Basic Fundamentals

Genetics: Mendel’s laws of inheritance and sex linked inheritance of diseases.

Monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross. The following terms to be covered: gene, allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, mutation, variation, phenotype, genotype. Sex determination in human beings.

Sex linked inheritance of diseases to include haemophilia and colour blindness (only criss cross inheritance).

Genetics: Mendel’s laws of inheritance and sex linked inheritance of diseases.
• The three laws of Mendel.
• Monohybrid cross – phenotype and genotype.
• Dihybrid cross – Only phenotype.
• The following terms to be covered: gene, allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, mutation, variation, phenotype, genotype.
• Sex determination in human beings. Sex linked inheritance of diseases to include only X-linked like haemophilia and colour blindness.

1.20 Cell Cycle, Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes

(i) Cell Cycle and Cell Division:-

Cell cycle:- Interphase (G1, S, G2) and M.phase

Cell Division:- Mitosis and its stages. A basic understanding of Meiosis as a reduction division (stages not required). Significance and major differences between mitotic and meiotic division.

(ii) Structure of chromosome:-

Basic structure of chromosome with elementary understanding of terms such as chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA and centromere.

2.00 Plant Physiology
2.10 Chemical Coordination in Plants
  • The Physiological Effects of Plant Hormones 

    A brief idea of the physiological effects of Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and Ethylene in regulating the growth of plants.

  • The Tropic Movements in Plants 

    A basic understanding of the tropic movements in plants with reference to – Phototropism, Geotropism, Hydrotropism, Thigmotropism and Chemotropism (supported with suitable examples)

Chemical coordination in Plants: A general study of plant growth regulators; Tropic
movements in plants.
• A brief idea of the physiological effects of Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic
acid and Ethylene in regulating the growth of plants.
• A basic understanding of the tropic movements in plants with reference to – Phototropism, Geotropism, Hydrotropism, Thigmotropism and Chemotropism (supported with suitable examples).

2.20 Photosynthesis: Provider of Food for All

Photosynthesis: the nature of the process itself and the great importance of photosynthesis to life in general; experiments to show the necessity of light, carbon dioxide & chlorophyll and also the formation of starch and the output of oxygen; carbon cycle.

The internal structure of chloroplast should be explained to give an idea of the site of light and dark reaction. Opening and closing of stomata should be explained. Teachers should stress upon the importance of a correct balanced chemical equation. The terms "photochemical" for light phase and "biosynthetic" for dark phase must be introduced. In the light reaction, activation of chlorophyll molecule followed by photolysis of water, release of O2, formation of ATP and NADPH should be taught. In the dark reaction (detailed equations are not required), only combination of hydrogen released by NADP with CO2 to form glucose to be discussed. Adaptations in a plant for photosynthesis and experiments with regard to the factors essential for the process should be discussed.

2.30 Transpiration

Transpiration - process and significance. Ganong’s potometer and its limitations. The factors affecting rate of transpiration. Experiments on transpiration. A brief idea of guttation and bleeding.


• Concept of transpiration and itsimportance to plants

• Experiments related to transpiration:

(a)Loss in weight of a potted plant or a leafy shoot in a test tube as a result of transpiration. 

(b)Use of cobalt chloride paper to demonstrate unequal rate of transpiration in a dorsiventral leaf.

• Mechanism of stomatal transpiration on the basis of potassium ion exchange theory.

• Adaptations in plants to reduce transpiration.

• A brief idea of guttation and bleeding

2.40 Absorption by Roots : the Processes Involved

Absorption by roots, imbibition, diffusion and osmosis; osmotic pressure, root pressure;
turgidity and flaccidity; plasmolysis and deplasmolysis; the absorption of water and
minerals; active and passive transport (in brief); The rise of water up to the xylem;
Forces responsible for ascent of sap.
• Understanding of the processes related to absorption of water by the roots.
• Characteristics of roots, which make them suitable for absorbing water.
• Structure of a single full-grown root hair.
• A general idea of Cohesive, Adhesive forces and transpirational pull.
• Experiments to show the conduction of water through the xylem.

Characteristics of roots, which make them suitable for absorbing water, should be discussed with the process of absorption.

Structure of a single full-grown root hair should be explained.

The rise of water up to the xylem; a general idea of Cohesive, Adhesive forces and transpirational pull) ; demonstrated by the use of dyes.

Experiments to show the conduction of water through the xylem should be discussed. Mention of the causative forces must be made for better understanding but as per the syllabus. 

 

3.00 Human Anatomy and Physiology
3.10 The Excretory System (Elimination of Body Wastes)
  • Concept of Excretory System 
  • Elementary Treatment of the Structure and Function of the Kidneys 
    • kidneys treated as comprising cortex and medulla 
    • consisting of a branched system of tubules well supplied with blood vessels leading to the ureter 
  • Parts of the Urinary System 

    Parts of the urinary system along with the blood vessels entering and leaving the kidney; functions of various parts of the urinary system (emphasis on diagram with correct labelling). A general idea of the structure of a kidney tubule/ nephron.

  • Ultra-filtration 

    A brief idea of ultra-filtration (emphasis on the diagram of malpighian capsule); selective reabsorption and tubular secretion in relation to the composition of blood plasma and urine formed.

Excretory System:- Elementary treatment of the structure and function of the kidneys; the kidneys treated as comprising cortex and medulla and consisting of a branched system of tubules well supplied with blood vessels leading to the ureter (details of the courses of the tubules and their blood vessels not required).

External and internal structure of the kidney; parts of the excretory system along with the blood vessels entering and leaving it should be taught with the help of charts or models. Students should be able to draw the diagrams with correct labelling and know the functions of various parts. A general idea of the structure of a kidney tubule nephron should be given. A brief idea of ultra-filtration, selective reabsorption and tubular secretion in relation to the composition of blood plasma and urine formed.

3.20 The Circulatory System

Circulatory System:- Main features; the structure and working of the heart, blood vessels, structure and functions of blood and circulation of blood (only names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, liver and kidney will be required).

Composition of blood (Structure and functions of RBC, WBC and platelets). Brief idea of tissue fluid and lymph. Increase in efficiency of mammalian red blood cells due to absence of certain organelles should be explained with reasons. A brief idea of blood coagulation. Structure of vein, artery and capillary should be explained with the help of diagrams to bring out clearly the relationship between their structure and function. ABO blood group system, Rh factor; concept of double circulation; concept systole and diastole; blood pressure. Reference to portal system should be made. Working of the heart along with names of the main blood vessels entering and leaving the heart, the liver and the kidney must be taught. Examination of a blood smear under a microscope.

• Composition of blood (structure and functions of RBC, WBC and platelets).
• Brief idea of tissue fluid and lymph.
• Increase in efficiency of mammalian red blood cells due to absence of certain organelles; reasons for the same.
• A brief idea of blood coagulation.
• Structure and working of the heart along with names of the main blood vessels
entering and leaving the heart, the liver and the kidney.
• Concept of systole and diastole; concept of double circulation.
• Brief idea of pulse and blood pressure.
• Blood vessels: artery, vein and capillary to be explained with the help of diagrams
to bring out the relationship between their structure and function.
• Brief idea of the lymphatic organs: spleen and tonsils.
• ABO blood group system, Rh factor.
• Significance of the hepatic portal system

3.30 The Nervous System

Nervous system:- Structure of Neuron; central, autonomous and peripheral nervous system (in brief); brain and spinal cord; reflex action and how it differs from voluntary reflex.

Sense organs – Eye and ear; Eye defects and corrective measures (myopia, hypermetropia, presbiopia, astigmatism and cataract).

Various parts of the external structure of the brain and its parts (Medulla Oblongata, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus) and their functions; reference should be made to the distribution of white and gray matter internally. Diagrammatic explanation of the reflex arc, showing the pathway from receptor to effector, differences between natural and acquired reflex should be taught. Structure and function of the Eye and Ear and their various parts. The external and V.S. of the eye must be taught with a brief idea of stereoscopic vision. The course of perception of sound in human ear. Role of ear in maintaining balance.

3.40 The Reproductive System

The Reproductive System:- Organs, fertilisation and a general outline of nutrition and respiration of the embryo.Menstrual cycle, outline of menstrual cycle.

Functions of organs and accessory glands must be discussed. An idea of secondary sexual characters, structure and functions of the various parts of the sperm and an egg. Fertilization, implantation, placenta, foetal membranes, gestation and parturition identical and fraternal twins to be explained briefly.

Explanation of the terms: Fertilization, implantation, placenta, gestation and parturition

3.50 The Endocrine System

Endocrine System:- General study of the following glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary. Difference in Endocrine and Exocrine glands.

Correct location and shape of the gland in the human body should be discussed along with the hormones they secrete (Pancreas: insulin and glucagon to be taught; Thyroid: only thyroxin to be taught). Effects of hypo secretion and hyper secretion of hormones must be discussed. The term tropic hormones should be explained in the study of pituitary. Brief idea of feedback mechanism must be given.

3.60 Population – The Increasing Numbers and Rising Problems

Population:- Problems posed by the increase in population in India; need for adopting control measures - population control.

Main reasons for the sharp rise in human population in India and in the world. The terms demography, population density, birth rate, death rate and growth rate of population should be explained. With population growth, increased consumption and urbanization, there is a need to keep a check on demands of urban areas over rural areas, of exploitative use of resources rather than sustainable use. Methods of population control to be taught.

4.00 Physical Health and Hygiene
4.10 Health Organisations

Health organisations:- Red Cross, WHO; common health problems in India.

Major activities of Red Cross and WHO should be discussed. Common health problems in India.

4.20 Aids to Health

Aids to health:- an understanding of the use and action of the following - vaccination; immunisation; antitoxin; serum; antiseptics; disinfectants; penicillin; sulphonamide drugs; First Aid.

First Aid-An idea of local defense system and their merits, active and passive immunity, difference between antiseptics and disinfectants to be discussed. Basic principles of first aid to be taught.

5.00 Pollution

(i) Types of pollution - air, water, (fresh and marine) soil, radiation and noise.

Self-explanatory.

(ii) Sources of pollution and major pollutant:-

Air:- Vehicular, industrial, burning garbage, brick kilns.

Water:- Household detergents, sewage, industrial waste, oil spills, thermal pollution.

Soil:- Industrial waste, urban commercial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, biomedical waste, like needles, syringes, soiled dressings etc, biodegradable waste, like paper, vegetable peels, etc; Non-biodegradable waste like plastics, glass, Styrofoam etc.; Pesticides like DDT etc.

Radiation:- X-rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants.

(iii)Effects of pollution on climate, environment, human health and other organisms and its abatement.

Greenhouse effect and global warming, Acid rain, Ozone layer depletion.

Meaning of the terms, causes, effect on life on earth, idea about setting standards - Euro/Bharat stage vehicular standards.

6.00 Population

Population explosion in India; need for adopting control measures - population control.
• Main reasons for the sharp rise in human population in India and in the world.
• A brief explanation of the terms: demography, population density, birth rate, death rate and growth rate of population.
• Problems faced due to population explosion: unemployment, over exploitation of natural resources, low per capita income, price rise, pollution, unequal distribution of wealth.
• Methods of population control: Surgical methods – Tubectomy and vasectomy.

7.00 Human Evolution
  • Human Evolution 

    A brief idea of human ancestors – Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon and Homo sapiens sapiens (Modern Man) with reference to the following characteristics:
    - Bipedalism
    - Increasing Cranial capacity
    - Reduction of size of canine teeth
    - Forehead and brow ridges
    - Development of chin
    - Reduction in body hair
    - Height and Posture

  • Lamarck’S Theory 

    Lamarck’s theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics – with reference to use of organs (e.g: neck and forelimbs of giraffe) and disuse of organs (e.g: vestigial organs in humans like wisdom teeth, vermiform appendix, pinnae).

  • Darwin'S Theory of Natural Selection 

    Darwin’s theory of Natural selection: Survival of the fittest - e.g. adaptation of peppered moth.

Basic introduction to Human evolution and Theories of evolution: Lamarck’s theory of inheritance; Darwin’s theory of evolution by
natural selection.
• A brief idea of human ancestors – Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon and Homo sapiens sapiens (Modern Man) with reference to the following characteristics:
- Bipedalism
- Increasing Cranial capacity
- Reduction of size of canine teeth
- Forehead and brow ridges
- Development of chin
- Reduction in body hair
- Height and Posture
• Lamarck’s theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics – with reference to use of organs (e.g: neck and forelimbs of giraffe)
and disuse of organs (e.g: vestigial organs in humans like wisdom teeth, vermiform appendix, pinnae).
• Darwin’s theory of Natural selection: Survival of the fittest - e.g. adaptation of peppered moth

701.00 Structure of Chromosome
  • Structure of Chromosome 

    Basic structure of chromosome with
    elementary understanding of terms such as
    chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA
    and centromere

 Structure of chromosome.
Basic structure of chromosome with elementary understanding of terms such as chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA and centromere.

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