Units and Topics
Congress and other ministries
- The main features of Provincial Autonomy should be explained. A critical account of the election of 1937 and the working of the Congress ministries must be given. A summary of main developments under non-Congress ministries should be included
- The outbreak of World War II
- Resignation of the Congress Ministries
- Lahore Session of the Muslim League in 1940
- Deadlock up to the August Offer (1940)
- Failure of the Cripps Mission
- Quit India
- Arrest of Congress Leaders
- Violent Public Reaction
- Government Repression of Revolt of 1942
The outbreak of World War II and the resignation of the Congress ministries, Lahore Session of the Muslim League in 1940 and the deadlock up to the August Offer (1940). Failure of the Cripps Mission; Quit India resolution; arrest of Congress leaders; violent public reaction; Government repression of revolt of 1942.
- Why the Cripps Mission was sent to India should be explained along with its proposals. Reasons for the rejection of its proposals should lead directly to the Quit India resolution. A compact account of the movement, its repression and a brief analysis of its significance is needed.
- Bose’s Role in the National Movement
- Bose’s Differences with Gandhi
- Background to the Formation of the IIL and INA
Bose’s role in the national movement and his differences with Gandhi to be discussed. Background to the formation of the IIL and INA; Bose’s revival of the INA should be emphasized, a brief account of its operations, eventual defeat and significance
- Changed Attitude of British Government
- The Cabinet Mission Plan Proposals
- Congress and League Reaction
- Direct Action by League
- Communal Riots
- Attlee's Declaration of 1947
- The Mountbatten Plan
- Partition and Independence
changed attitude of British Government; the Cabinet Mission Plan proposals; Congress and League reaction; Direct Action by League; communal riots; Attlee's declaration of 1947; the Mountbatten Plan; partition and independence.
- Reasons for change in the attitude of the British government after World War II - Cabinet Mission: its aims and the major provisions of its Plan. Election to the Constituent Assembly and the results. Controversy between Congress and League over the question of: (a) grouping of provinces under the terms of the Plan (b) being part of the Constituent Assembly (c) being part of the Interim Government. Muslim League’s Direct Action and communal riots. Congress and Muslim League’s decisions on these issues
- 1947: Attlee’s Declaration of 20th February
1947; Mountbatten Plan – main features: acceptance of the Plan by major political parties; modifications in the Indian Independence Act. Reasons why the Congress accepted partition.
- The Refugee Problem
- Transfer of Assets and the River Waters Dispute
- Origin of the Kashmir Problem
- Role of Sardar Patel in the Reorganisation
- Integration of Princely States with Specialreference to Junagarh and Hyderabad
- The Foundation of Indian Democracy
- Significance of the First General Election Based on Universal Adult Suffrage (1952)
- Role of Political Parties
- Problems of Preparation and Their Solutions, Process, Result and Impact of the Elections
- Movement for Linguistic Reorganisation with Particular Reference to Andhra, Bombay and Punjab
- Redrawing of the Map of India on the Basis of Linguistic Identity
The following should be discussed:
- The refugee problem, the transfer of assets and the river waters dispute.
- Origin of the Kashmir problem. The role of Sardar Patel in the reorganisation and integration of princely states with special reference to Junagarh and Hyderabad.
- The foundation of Indian Democracy: significance of the first general election based on universal adult suffrage (1952): role of political parties, problems of preparation and their solutions, process, result and impact of the elections
- The linguistic reorganisation of states: movement for linguistic reorganisation with particular reference to Andhra, Bombay and Punjab; redrawing of the map of India on the basis of linguistic identity
- Appointment of Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1964 and Indira Gandhi in 1966 as Prime Minister
- Importance of the Election of 1967
- Factionalism in the Congress
- (Syndicate vs. Indira Gandhi) leading to its split in 1969
- Emergence of Opposition Political Parties and Their Main Leaders
- In the appointment of Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1964 and Indira Gandhi in 1966 as prime minister.
- Importance of the election of 1967: the factionalism in the Congress (Syndicate vs. Indira Gandhi) leading to its split in 1969.
- Emergence of Opposition political parties and their main leaders.
- Causes of Naxal Movement Rise
- Historic Eight Documents (Main Points) as the Origin of Its Ideological Basis (1967),
- Main Leaders (Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal)
- Areas Where Naxal Operated (West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh)
- Government Measures Against Naxal Movement
- Reasons for Naxal Movement Decline in the 1970’S
- Impact of Naxal Movement
- causes of its rise; Historic Eight Documents (main points) as the origin of its ideological basis (1967), main leaders (Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal); areas where they operated (West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh) and the struggle carried out by peasants and students.; government measures against it; reasons for its decline in the 1970’s and its impact.
- Origin - JP Movement
- Jai Prakash Narayan’S Disputes with Mrs. Gandhi
- Main Features of Its Course (Jp Movement )
- Measures to Suppress It (JP Movement)
- Assessment of Its Significance and Impact
- positive and negative features
- Origin: Jai Prakash Narayan’s disputes with Mrs. Gandhi; main features of its course; leadership; measures to suppress it. Assessment of its significance and impact (positive and negative features).
- Reasons for Imposition
- Main Features of the Suspensionof Democratic Rights
- Assessment of Its Impact of Emergency
- Possible Reasons for Withdrawal of Emergency
- reasons for imposition; main features of the suspension of democratic rights. Assessment of its impact (positive and negative aspects). Possible reasons for withdrawal
- Centre-state Relations - Punjab
- separatist demands and the Centre’s response
- Centre-state Relations - Demands in the North-east
- Assam’s agitation against foreigners
- Centre’s response (1947-85)
- Nagaland’s demand for autonomy and its resolution (1947-80);
- Mizoram Movement (1959-1986)
Centre-State relations to be studied with reference to:
Punjab: separatist demands and the Centre’s response
Demands in the North-East:
- Assam’s agitation against foreigners and the Centre’s response (1947-85); main events to be done in detail.
- Nagaland’s demand for autonomy and its resolution (1947-80); main events to be done briefly.
- Mizoram Movement (1959-1986) to be touched upon
- Non-aligned Policy in the Context of the Cold War
- Aims - Panchsheel
- Bandung and Belgrade Conferences
- Cold War and NAM in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s
- Korean War and Vietnam War
- Invasion of Hungary
- Arab Israeli Conflicts (1956-1979)
- The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Reasons for following a non-aligned policy in the context of the Cold War to be discussed.
Aims – Panchsheel
- Establishment and growth – Bandung and Belgrade conferences; Cold War and NAM in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s (brief outlines of India’s stance during significant Cold War events): the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the invasion of Hungary, the Arab Israeli conflicts (1956-1979) and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
- Indo-Pak Wars
- causes of War
- course and consequences of War
- Indo-Pak wars: causes, course and consequences of each to be done separately
- Initial Relations with the Peoples’ Republic of China
- Disputes Over - Tibet Issue
- Chinese takeover and asylum of the Dalai Lama in India
- Disputes Over - Border Issues
- Sino-Indian War (1962)
- Immediate Causes and Consequences of Sino-indian War
- Background: Initial relations with the Peoples’ Republic of China; disputes over
- Tibet issue: Chinese takeover and asylum of the Dalai Lama in India; Border issues.
- Sino-Indian War (1962): immediate causes and consequences
- Significance of the Towards Equality Report (1974) with Regard to Women’S
- Developments in the Anti-dowry Movement
- Struggle Against Domestic Violence in the 1970s and and 1980s
- A brief outline of the significance of the Towards Equality Report (1974) with regard to women’s issues
- Developments in the anti-dowry movement and struggle against domestic violence in the 1970s and 1980s
- Factors Leading to the World War Ii
- Aggressive Foreign Policies of Germany, Italy and Japan
- Anglo-french Appeasement Policies
- Appeasement - Britain and France Chose to Follow Policy
- Course of the War: Europe, Africa and Far East.
- American Entry and Contribution to War
- Reasons for the Defeat of the Axis Powers
Factors leading to the War: aggressive foreign policies of Germany, Italy and Japan.
- Should be discussed in some detail, showing how these aggressive policies made war more likely and worldwide in scope.
- Reasons for Japan’s alliances with Italy and Germany should be briefly explained, leading to the attack on Pearl Harbour.
Anglo-French appeasement policies.
- Appeasement: why Britain and France chose to follow this policy and how it was carried out
Course of the War: Europe, Africa and Far East. American entry and contribution.
- Main theatres of the War during 1939-1945 should be done separately in chronological order; the main battles should be done in some detail: El Alamein, Stalingrad, Midway, the Normandy landings and the policy of "island hopping" in the Pacific. The US contribution should be done separately for Europe and the Pacific.
Reasons for the defeat of the Axis Powers.
- Each of the reasons for the defeat of the Axis should be explained
- China - Civil War and the Establishment of the People'S Republic in 1949
- Mao Tse Tung
- Agrarian and Industrial Policy
- Political and Economic Developments of China
- Contribution of Mao
- Ghana - Democracy, Dictatorship and Military Government (1957-69).
- Kenya - Conflict and Independence (1947 – 1969)
China: civil war and the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949; Mao Tse Tung; agrarian and industrial policy; political and economic developments; contribution of Mao
- A brief overview of the developments after Chiang Kai-shek’s rise to power (1924) to the truce between the KMT and the CCP in 1936 to be given.
- An outline of the post-war struggle between the KMT and CCP and the victory of the
Communists. The causes of Communist victory should be stated and briefly explained.
- A short background of the problems facing the Communists in 1949: in agriculture, the gradual process from land distribution to collective farms should be outlined; in
industry, the Five Year Plan and Soviet help. The 100 Flowers Campaign should be
covered in brief. The Great Leap Forward should be covered in more detail, particularly the development of commune and assessment of the GLF. Finally, a brief outline of the Cultural Revolution and its impact on China. Estimate of Mao should be short and to the point.
Ghana: democracy, dictatorship and military government (1957-69).
- Brief background to independence, Nkrumah’s role, reasons for his overthrow; coup of 1966
Kenya: conflict and independence (1947 – 1969).
- Background: conflict over independence and role of Kenyatta
- End of Wartime Unity
- Yalta and Potsdam Conferences
- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
- Molotov Plan, COMECON and Cominform
- The Rift Widens - Soviet Expansion in Eastern Europe (1945-1948)
- including the communist coup in Czechoslovakia
End of wartime unity; Yalta and Potsdam Conferences; Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan; Molotov Plan, COMECON and Cominform. The rift widens - Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe (1945-1948) including the communist coup in Czechoslovakia.
- The main points raised at the two post-War Conferences as well as the major points of differences should be explained. A general
account of the Soviet expansion in East Europe until 1948 and the major causes of the Cold War should be done in this context
- Berlin Blockade
- NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
- Division of Germany
- “Thaw” in the Cold War (1953-59)
- Warsaw Pact
- The Vietnam War (1954-75)
- Crisis in East-west Relations (1960-62)
- Detente (1970s)
Berlin Blockade; NATO; division of Germany; “thaw” in the Cold War (1953-59) - how partial was it? Warsaw Pact; the Vietnam War (1954-75); crisis in east-west relations (1960-62); detente (1970s).
- Each of the events referred to above should be done in some detail; the two phases of the Vietnam War, the French and the US
involvement and escalation after the Tonkin Gulf incident to be done. In the 1960-62 period, the U-2 affair and the Berlin Wall
incident should be mentioned; the Cuban Missile crisis should be done in detail – the easing of tension can be done as a result of the
crisis. Only the outline of the reasons for détente and how it worked should be done
- Collapse of USSR
- Gorbachev’S Policies (Glasnost and Perestroika
- Role Played by Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush
- Fall of Communism in East Europe
USSR, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovaki
- Reasons for collapse of USSR: economic failure; Gorbachev’s policies (Glasnost and erestroika)
- Role played by Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush
- Fall of communism in East Europe in the following countries to be touched upon: Poland, Germany and Czechoslovakia
- Civil Rights Movement
- Anti-Apartheid Movement
- Feminist Movement
- Racial Problems and Civil Rights in Usa in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s
Civil Rights Movement, anti-Apartheid Movement; Feminist Movement.
- Racial problems and civil rights in USA in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s: Racial discrimination, change in the government’s attitude, campaign for equal rights (Dr. Martin Luther King’s role).
- Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa (1948-1994): main features of Apartheid,
opposition to Apartheid (Dr Nelson Mandela’s role), transition to black majority rule and the end of Apartheid
- Second Wave Feminist Movement in USA (early 1960s – early 1980’s): reasons for its
origin (the impact of the Presidential Commission, Betty Friedan’s book and the
Civil Rights Movement; Equal Pay Act of 1963 – its implications for American women,
successive measures taken by Johnson (Civil Rights Act of 1964), role of National
Organisation for Women (NOW) and its campaign for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Socio-cultural impact of the Movement to be mentioned briefly.
- Post War Conflict in Palestine After World War I, Till the Formation of the State of Israel
- The Arab-israeli Wars from 1948 to Camp David Accord (1979)
- Oslo Peace Accords (1993)
Post War conflict in Palestine after World War I, till the formation of the state of Israel.
- Aims of Arab nationalism and Zionism. Impact of World War I: the conflicting promises made by the British to the Arabs and the Jews: Husain-MacMahon correspondence, the Sykes-Picot Agreement and the Balfour Declaration. All these need to be understood clearly. A general outline of events in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1919 to the Arab Revolt of the late 1930s (the increased immigration of Jews and the resultant conflict).
- The impact of World War II and the intensification of the conflict against Britain’s decision to withdraw – the UNO’s plan. Creation of Israel and the War of
Liberation (a chronological account should suffice here).
The Arab-Israeli Wars from 1948 to Camp David Accord (1979).
- The following conflicts should be studied – First Arab- Israeli Conflict (1948-1949), the Suez Crisis (1956), the Six Day War (1967), the Yom Kippur War (1973), Sadat and the Camp David Accord (1979). For each of these events, the causes and results should be studied in detail. Events to be covered briefly. The origin and formation of the PLO
Oslo Peace Accords (1993).
- Intifada and the change in attitude of Israel and the PLO leading to the Oslo Peace
Accords: assessment of the main features: why it failed to bring peace.