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Geography Class 9 ICSE CISCE Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:


1 Our World

Earth as a planet
The shape of the earth. Earth as the home of humankind and the conditions that exist.

Geographic grid - Latitudes & Longitudes

  • (a) Concept of latitudes: main latitudes, their location with degrees, parallels of latitude, and their uses.
  • (b) Concept of longitudes - Prime Meridian, time (local, standard and time zones,
    Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and International Date Line (IDL). Eastern and
    Western hemisphere.
  • (c) Using latitudes and longitudes to find location. Calculation of time.
  • (d) Great Circles and their use.

Rotation and Revolution

  • Rotation – direction, speed, and its effects (occurrence of day and night, the sun rising in the east and set in the west, Coriolis effect)
  • Revolution of the earth and its inclined axis – effects: the variation in the length of the day and night and seasonal changes with Equinoxes and Solstices.
2 Structure of the Earth

(i) Earth’s Structure
Core, mantle, crust – meaning, extent, and

(ii) Landforms of the Earth
Mountains, plateaus, plains (definition, types
and their formation):
 Mountains – fold, residual, and block.
Plateaus – intermont and volcanic.
Plains – structural and depositional.
Examples from the world and India.

(iii) Rocks- the difference between minerals and rocks,
types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary,
metamorphic, their characteristics and
formation; rock cycle.

(iv) Volcanoes
Meaning, Types – active, dormant, and extinct.
Effects – constructive and destructive.
Important volcanic zones of the world.

(v) Earthquakes
Meaning, causes, and measurement.
Effects: destructive and constructive.
Earthquake zones of the World

(vi) Weathering and Denudation
Meaning, types, and effects of weathering.
Types: Physical Weathering – block and
granular disintegration, exfoliation;
Chemical Weathering–oxidation, carbonation,
hydration and solution;
Biological Weathering – caused by humans,
plants and animals.
Meaning and agents of denudation; work of
river and wind.
Stages of a river course and associated land
forms – V-shaped valley, waterfall, meander
and delta.
Wind – deflation hollows and Sand dunes

3 Hydrosphere
  • Hydrosphere 
    • Layers of Hydrosphere
    • Importance of Hydrosphere
  • Tides 
  • Ocean Currents 

    their circulation pattern and effects. (Specifically of Gulf Stream, North Atlantic Drift, Labrador Current, Kuro Shio, and Oya Shio.)

Meaning of hydrosphere.
Tides - formation, and pattern.
Ocean Currents – their circulation pattern and effects. (Specifically of Gulf Stream, North
Atlantic Drift, Labrador Current, Kuro Shio, and Oya Shio.)

4 Atmosphere

(i) Composition and structure of the atmosphere.
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ionosphere and
Exosphere; Ozone in the Stratosphere, its
depletion. Global warming and its impact.

(ii) Insolation
• Meaning of insolation and terrestrial
• Factors affecting temperature: latitude,
altitude, distance from the sea, the slope of
land, winds, and ocean currents.

(iii) Atmospheric Pressure and Winds.
• Meaning and factors that affect atmospheric pressure.
• Major pressure belts of the world.
• Factors affecting direction and velocity of wind – pressure gradient, Coriolis Effect.

Permanent winds – Trades, Westerlies and Polar Easterlies.
Periodic winds - Land and Sea breezes, Monsoons.
Local winds - Loo, Chinook, Foehn, and Mistral.
Variable winds - Cyclones and Anticyclones.
Jet Streams- Meaning and importance.

(iv) Humidity
Humidity – meaning and difference between relative and absolute humidity.
Condensation – forms (clouds, dew, frost, fog, and mist).
Precipitation - forms (rain, snow, and hail).
Types of rainfall – relief/orographic, convectional, cyclonic/ frontal with examples from the different parts of the world. 

5 Pollution


(a) Types - air, water (fresh and marine), soil, radiation, and noise.

(b) Sources
• Noise: Traffic, factories, construction sites, loud speakers, airports.
• Air: vehicular, industrial, burning of garbage.
• Water: domestic and industrial waste.
• Soil: chemical fertilizers, bio medical waste, and pesticides.
• Radiation: X- rays; radioactive fallout from nuclear plants.

(c) Effects - on the environment and human health.

(d) Preventive Measures
Carpools, promotion of public transport, no-smoking zone, restricted use of fossil fuels,
saving energy, and encouragement of organic farming.

6 Natural Regions of the World

Natural Regions of the World
Location, area, climate, natural vegetation, and human adaptation.

Equatorial region

Tropical grasslands

Tropical Deserts

Tropical Monsoon


Temperate grasslands

Taiga and Tundra

7 Map Work

On an outline map of the World, candidates will be required to locate, mark, and name the following:

  1. The major Natural Regions of the world - Equatorial, Tropical Monsoon, Tropical
    Deserts, Mediterranean type, Tropical grasslands, Temperate grasslands, Taiga and
  2. The Oceans, Seas, Gulfs and Straits - all Major Oceans, Caribbean Sea, North Sea,
    Black Sea, Caspian Sea, South China Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria,
    Hudson Bay, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Guinea, Bering Strait, Strait of
    Gibraltar, Strait of Malacca.
  3. Rivers – Mississippi, Colorado, Amazon, Paraguay, Nile, Zaire, Niger, Zambezi,
    Orange, Rhine, Volga, Danube, Murray, Darling, Hwang Ho, Yangtse Kiang, Ob,
    Indus, Ganga, Mekong, Irrawaddy, Tigris, Euphrates.
  4. Mountains – Rockies, Andes, Appalachian, Alps, Himalayas, Pyrenees, Scandinavian Highlands, Caucasus, Atlas, Drakensburg, Khinghan, Zagros, Urals, Great Dividing Range.
  5. Plateaus – Canadian Shield, Tibetan Plateau, Brazilian Highlands, Patagonian Plateau, Iranian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau.
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