Units and Topics
- Locational Setting - India
- size and area.
- Present importance of the location of India with reference to the Indian Ocean Rim countries and the Northern and Western frontiers.
- Comparison with China and Australia.
- Geological Formation
- Outline of the geological evolution and structure: basic definitions – geology, era, periods, physiography, geological structure, stratigraphy.
- Geological evolution of the Peninsular Plateau, the Himalayas and the Great Plains. Difference between the Peninsular Plateau and the Himalayas.
- Relief and Drainage
- Major Physiographic Divisions and Their Characteristics
- The three-fold physiographic divisions: the Himalayan mountain complex, the
Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plains and the
- Three physical divisions with reference to their extent, altitude, slope and landform
characteristics - Coastal Plains, Islands, Drainage (i.e. rivers) and drainage
- The three-fold physiographic divisions: the Himalayan mountain complex, the
- Factors Affecting India’S Climate
- Temperature - factors affecting temperature. Atmospheric pressure conditions during the year; origin and mechanism of the monsoon, Jet streams, Southern Oscillations; wind and rainfall distribution during the year.
- Characteristics of the four main seasons - hot and dry, hot and wet, cool and dry, cool and wet with reference to temperature distribution in north and south India, pressure, wind conditions – distribution of resultant rainfall; variability of rainfall, incidence of droughts and floods. Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Jaisalmer, Leh, and Hyderabad.
- Role of Various Factors Affecting Indian Climate
- latitudinal extent, distance from the sea, northern mountain ranges, physiography, monsoon winds, upper air circulation, western disturbances and tropical cyclones, southern oscillation, El Nino; understanding of the concept and mechanism of monsoon; Indian Monsoonal Regime – onset, rain bearing system, break in the monsoon, retreat of the monsoon
- Seasons of India
- with reference to temperature, pressure distribution, wind systems and local winds (loo, kalbaisaki/Norwesters, Mango showers; explanation of the variability of rainfall in different areas over different seasons.
- Droughts and Floods
- meaning, causes, affected areas and mitigation programs.Temperature and rainfall graphs of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Leh, Jaisalmer and Hyderabad.
- Major Vegetation Types of India
- Geographical distribution with reference to rainfall and temperature conditions – description of the important tree types and their adaptation to the climate.
- Forest – area covered, importance, use, misuse and potential both for exploitation and conservation. Present forest policy.
- Factors Affecting Vegetation
- Distinction between vegetation, flora and forest, virgin vegetation.
- Classification of Vegetation Types
- Tropical evergreen, monsoon forests, tropical dry forests, arid forests, deltaic forests, mountain forests and their geographical distribution and adaptation; importance of the trees in these forests.
- Importance of Forest to Man
- Impact of human activity on vegetation. Forest area and forest cover in India.
- Forest Conservation – need, Social Forestry (Agro forestry, community forestry, commercial farm forestry, non-commercial farm forestry, urban forestry).
- Forest Conservation Movement
- Van Mahotsav,
- Chipko Movement,
- Forest Conservation Act(1980).
- National Forest Policy (1988)
- Objectives of the Forest Policy;
- Integrated Forest Protection Scheme.
- Population of India Compared to Six Countries
- Compared to six countries - China, Australia, USA, Canada, Russia and Brazil.
- Population of India as compared to the other six countries with reference to percentage of world population and India’s position in the world.
- Definition of Census
- Index of concentration (highest and lowest index of concentration as per the latest census),
- Density of population – arithmetic and physiological.
- Spatial Distribution of Population in India
- Explanation of the factors influencing it – landforms, climate, accessibility and level of development that result in this pattern.
- Comparison of the density at the State level and factors influencing it.
- Concept of Terminologies
- Terminologies such as population, birth rate, death rate, population growth rate, natural growth rate and absolute growth of population, migratory growth, positive and negative growth.
- Population Growth of India at National Level
- It trends of 1921, 1951 and 1981 to the latest Census, of absolute growth rate of population.
- Demographic characteristics of India at the National level- birth rate, death rate, and natural growth rate from 1991 to the latest Census.
- Drawing General Conclusions
- Impact of rapid growth rate on economic development, on environment;
- Need for planned development (to maintain the ecological balance).
- Important Terms of Migration
- migration, commutation, out migration, in migration, step-wise migration and migrant, push and pull factors.
- Types of Migration
- National and International migration
- Inter migration and intra migration
- Urban migration and rural migration
- Trends of migration
- Streams of Migration
- Rural-rural, rural- urban, urban-urban and urban-rural.
- Causes for migration - natural, economic, political and social.
- Comparing the consequences of each type of migration on cities and rural areas.
- Rural Urban Population
- Age and Sex Composition
- Literacy Levels
- Working and Non- Working Population
- implications for development
- Causes and Trends of Demographic Attributes
- Rural urban composition, age and sex ratio,literacy level, working and non-working.
- population at the National level (highest and lowest figures for each of the above) in the latest census.
- Implications for development.
- Concept of Rural Settlements
- Size and number of villages as per the latest census.
- Types and patterns in hill areas, plains and coastal locations.
- Distinction Between Rural and Urban Settlements
- Rural and Urban Population.
- Classification of villages as per the latest census.
- Factors Affecting the Rural Settlements
- the types (distinction between compact and dispersed) and patterns (linear, circular, star shaped, rectangular, shapeless) of rural settlements in plains, coastal areas, mountains and plateau areas.
- Concept of Urban Settlements
- Size classification of towns as per the latest census.
- Study of population growth in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai from1951 till the latest census.
- Definition of Urban Area
- Urban area according to the latest census;
- Urban agglomeration, conurbation, urban sprawl, ribbon settlement, infill, metropolis, megalopolis.
- Trends of Urbanization
- It's only in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai from 1951 till the latest census.
- Factors Influence the Urbanization
- The growth of urban centres in India.
- Problems and advantages of urban growth.
- Need for Environmental Management and Development.
- Understanding that from the development point of view, environment may mistakenly be seen as a ‘resource’ to be exploited, whereas, environment needs to be viewed as a ‘capital’ that needs to be managed carefully.
- Concept of Land Resources
- Land use pattern in India – quality of cultivable land, size of land holdings.
- Defining the Term Land Resource
- its importance and problems.
- Land use pattern – net sown area, area sown more than once, forests, land not available for cultivation, permanent pastures and other grazing lands, land under miscellaneous tree crops, culturable (cultivable) waste, fallow land, quality and size of cultivable land holdings.
- Methods to reduce fragmentation of landholdings.
- Concept of Water Resources
- Types of water resources: Surface and ground water.
- Meaning, importance and need for irrigation in India.
- Sources of Irrigation:
Traditional Methods: wells, tanks, tube wells; (study of two states where each of the above types of irrigation is mainly prevalent).
Modern methods: tube wells, sprinkler irrigation, Perennial canals (Names of two canals each in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra).
- Use and Misuse of Water for Irrigation
- Study of alternative methods of irrigation.
- Overwatering - reasons and regions affected by it; dangers of overwatering
- Conservation of water resources including their management; rain water harvesting.
- Wet and Dry Agriculture
- Crop rotation and crop combination.
- Intensity of cropping – concept and crops associated; problems of Indian agriculture;
- Use of new technology – Green revolution: Need, impact and problems, second green revolution - strategies for second green revolution.
- Diversification of Indian Agriculture
- Animal Husbandry: meaning and its importance in Indian Agriculture.
- Comparative Studies
- Conditions of growth (soil, temperature, rainfall requirements, crop seasons, secondary crops cultivated with them).
- World production and India’s position.
- Major producing States in India and their rank as producers of the following crops.
- Fishing in India, Japan and Bangladesh.
Methods, types of fish caught, fishing grounds
factors affecting the importance and development, fishing ports and markets, need and methods of fish conservation.
Recent Indian Fisheries Policy – a brief understanding only.
Understanding of marine and inland fisheries; deep sea and inshore fishing; pelagic and demersal fishing should be done.
Problems affecting fishing in India, Japan and Bangladesh should be also taken up.
Two ports and two types of fishes of each coastal State in India should be studied.
- Minerals and Power Resources
Distinguishing between metallic and non-metallic minerals; ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.
Production and distribution (three leading States and three leading centres in each State) of Iron ore, mica, coal, manganese and petroleum; their uses.
Iron ore, mica, coal: their types.
The main power resources - Nuclear thermal, hydel; three main States for generation of nuclear thermal and hydel power in India.
- Conventional Energy Sources
- Fossil fuels and firewood, potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and environmental consequences of their use.
- Non-conventional Energy Sources
- Types of non-conventional sources (bio- mass, solar, wind, ocean, hydel, geothermal, nuclear), potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and their environmental consequences, need to promote non-conventional energy sources.
- Advantages and limitations of each non-conventional energy source.
- Uses of these energy sources and distribution.
- Understanding the need to promote non-conventional energy sources.
- Railways Transport
- Roadways Transport
- Water Transport
- Air Transport
- These modes of transport are to be studied with regard to – Location and state-wise distribution of air, road and rail routes
- location of waterways and pipelines; natural and economic factors that govern their distribution
- Density and growth. Patterns in India.
- Concept of Ports
- Location and advantage
- Major exports and imports of different ports.
- Nature and direction of trade from the ports.
- International trading patterns and products in the last five years.
- Modern Means of Communication
- Satellites and remote sensing - Geographic Information Systems (GIS), cellular phones, radio, Doordarshan, internet; difference between mass communication and telecommunication.
- Prasar Bharti.
- Infrastructure as key to the development of an industrial economy.
- Concept of Major and Minor Industrial Regions
- Reasons for the spread of industrial areas.
- Understand how the distribution of heavy and consumer industries varies in the different regions
- Understanding why certain industries are more in a particular region.
- Major Industrial Regions:
- Mumbai-Pune, Hooghly, Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Chota Nagpur, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut.
- Minor Industrial Regions:
- Ambala-Amritsar, Saharanpur-Muzaffarnagar, Northern Malabar.
- Agro Based Industries
- Sugar Industry: Maharashtra (Ahmednagar and Pune), Uttar Pradesh (Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur), Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore and North Arcot).
- Cotton Textiles: Maharashtra (Mumbai and Pune), Gujarat (Ahmedabad and Surat), West Bengal (Kolkata and Howrah), Tamil Nadu (Madurai and Chennai).
- Ready-made garments: Delhi, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Kolkata.
- Mineral Based Industries
- Iron and steel
- Transport equipment
- Automobile Industry
- Ship Building Industry
- Aircraft Industry
- Petrochemicals, including refineries fertilizers.
NOTE: Factors responsible for the location, development and present status of the Agro and Mineral based industries mentioned above, as well as the distribution centres are to be studied.
- Concept of Tourism Industry
- Major natural and cultural tourist areas in India. Their special features and level of development - impact on environment and local economy. Tourist flows.
- Map List
- Locational setting of India, Mountains, Peaks, Plains, Plateaus, Peninsula, Lakes, Waterbodies, Passes, Rivers, Climate of India, Natural Vegetation, Population,Transport, etc.
- Sketch Maps
The sketch maps related to the following topics:
- Locational setting of India
- Relief and drainage of India
Question Papers For All Subjects
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