Units and Topics
Reducing pollution from domestic cooking; clean cooking - kerosene as a desirable cooking fuel in rural areas.
Measures for controlling industrial air pollution - technological measures (energy efficient devices, clean technologies), meteorological controls; zoning strategy; penalties and subsidies; Case Study: the Taj Trapezium.
Vehicle emission control - modify engine design (catalytic converters, four stroke engines), clean fuels, public transport options, traffic management, economic policy measures.
UN’s population projections for 2050, the climate link, the choice of alternative futures. Growing population in the developing countries and rising consumption in the developed countries.
Stages of transition, transition stages of certain developed nations and developing nations (such as India, China, Korea, Malaysia). Not to be tested, for knowledge and understanding only.
Strategies to include family planning and birth control, health care, education, economic development; women-centered human development.
Social mobilisation, agricultural development, small-scale industries, human development. Not to be tested, for knowledge and understanding only.
Sustainable cities: the need of the hour.
Efficient land use, planning energy, shelter and transport; water supply management, wastewater and sanitary waste management, construction activities.
Community participation in keeping surroundings clean, participation of private enterprises in city improvement, measures to increase private enterprise participation.
Erosion control techniques - terracing, contour ploughing, dry farming, tree planting, bunds, gullies, wind-breaks, use of organic fertilizers.
Soil conservation techniques - land-use management, vegetative and mechanical practices, conserving soil and water together; appropriate cropping systems – cropping patterns (strip cropping), tree crops, foliage crops.
Meaning, measures enforced in India to give land to the landless.
Objectives, self-help schemes like social and community forestry.
Reforestation, energy plantations, forest harvesting of non-timber forest products, exploring alternative sources of livelihood, change in consumption patterns.
Causes and consequences of overgrazing, controlled forest grazing as in National Forest Policy, 1988.
Recycling of timber and paper.
Integrated pest management – understanding the term, aims, advantages, disadvantages.
Genetically modified organisms, application in plants and animals and environmental risks.
New crop strains – high yielding varieties and their viability, hybrid varieties.
Mixed cropping – advantages and disadvantages; regenerative farming techniques - intercropping, crop rotation, agro forestry, polyvarietal cultivation and polyculture.
Conservation tillage farming - meaning of conservation tillage, advantages and disadvantages.
Trickle drip irrigation – need for a trickle drip irrigation system; operation of a drip irrigation system; advantages and disadvantages.
New organic fertilizers – integrated nutrient supply programme, organic fertilizers - bulky organic manures, green manures, bio-fertilizers, and sewage sludge.
Gene banks – what are gene banks; objectives of maintaining gene banks.
Global food imbalance, distributional inequality; role of food aid in achieving global food security.
Reasons for loss of biodiversity; Man - the super consumer: impact of his actions on the earth’s resources; reasons for concern: economic, ecological and aesthetic.
In-situ - wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves.
Ex-situ – zoological parks, botanical gardens, gene banks in agricultural research centres and forestry institutions.
Harvesting wildlife to meet commercial needs.
Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, Project Tiger 1973, IUCN, The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 1971, CITES, The Convention on Biological Diversity.
Electricity: energy on demand; dwindling supplies of fossil fuels; renewable and nonrenewable energy resources. Not to be tested, for knowledge and understanding only.
Nuclear fission, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy; safety concerns (the Chernobyl disaster); nuclear fusion.
Energy conservation; alternative energy sources - solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomass, liquid fuels from biomass- methanol, ethanol, gasohol, CNG, hydrogen.
Solid waste, biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials; where does the trash go - landfills and incinerators.
Producing less waste, reusing, recycling, composting, vermiculture, biotechnology; finding alternatives to materials we use.
Who is responsible - developed or developing countries? Need for mutual cooperation.
Role of developed and developing countries; contrasting views of developed and developing countries; debt trap.
Its link to environmental deterioration – unfair trade practices.
Definition of MNCs, their contribution to development and debatable contribution to environment; case study - Bhopal gas tragedy; measures to regulate activities of MNCs in developing countries.
Concept of economic and environmental global interdependence; global environmental health – the shared responsibility of nations; trade and aid as ways of reducing world inequalities.
The Montreal Protocol; the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) support; the Earth Summit, UN’s International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo); the Kyoto Treaty.
The concept of sustainable development, sustainable development and developed countries; sustainable development and developing countries.
Satellite imagery as a means of monitoring the global environment: satellite remote sensing, advantages in collecting environmental data, applying data in areas of environmental damage as deforestation, desertification, land degradation, wastelands, mining, ozone layer depletion and predicting droughts and floods.
The concept of alternate technology, adopting alternate technology to create self-sustaining societies in the developed and developing world.
Role of biotechnology in achieving global food security.
Question Papers For All Subjects
- English 1 (English Language) 2006 to 2019
- Hindi 2009 to 2019
- History and Civics 2006 to 2019
- Mathematics 2006 to 2019
- Economics 2011 to 2020
- Biology 2006 to 2019
- Chemistry 2006 to 2019
- Computer Science 2010 to 2013
- English 2 (Literature in English) 2006 to 2020
- Environmental Education 2009 to 2011
- Geography 2006 to 2019
- Physics 2006 to 2019