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Commerce Class 12 ISC (Science) CISCE Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:

Units and Topics

100 Business Environment -
200 Financing -
300 Management -
400 Marketing -
 Total -


100 Business Environment

Concept, and importance of Business Environment

  • Meaning, features and importance of Business Environment;
  • Dimensions of Business Environment – Micro (Internal and External factors) and Macro (Economic, social, technological, political and legal) – meaning and components.
  • S.W.O.T. Analysis - A basic understanding of S.W.O.T. (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) Analysis.
200 Financing

201 Capital

Capital: Sources of finance for sole trader; partnership; Joint Stock Company; financial planning.

  • Importance of finance for business. Sources of finance for different types of business firms. Meaning of financial planning. Factors affecting capital structure. Fixed capital - meaning, factors affecting fixed capital. Working capital – meaning, types; factors affecting working capital. Comparison between fixed and working capital.
202 Sources of Finance for a Joint Stock Company

(a) Different types of shares: equity, preference.

  • Bonus shares, rights issue, ESOP, Sweat Equity Shares, Retained earnings. Long-term sources of funds.          
  • Equity shares - features, advantages and disadvantages.                                                            
  • Preference shares - features, types advantages and disadvantages; distinction between equity shares and preference shares.                                                                                                       
  • Bonus and rights issue, ESOP and Sweat Equity Shares - meaning. Distinction between bonus shares and right shares. Retained earnings – meaning, merits and demerits.

(b) Loan capital: debentures.

  • Debentures – meaning; kinds of debentures; advantages and disadvantages of debentures. Distinction between shares and debentures.

(c) Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions.

  • Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions - meaning, advantages and disadvantages.

(d) Short-term sources of funds.

  • Short-term sources of funds – different types of short term financial assistance by Commercial Banks; public deposits, trade credit, customer advances, factoring, Inter corporate deposits and installment credit. Meaning, advantages and disadvantages of various sources of funds.
203 Banking - Latest Trends
  • Online services- transfer of funds through Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS), National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), issue of demand drafts online meaning and features.
  • Online payments, e-Banking – meaning and features, advantages and disadvantages
  • Mobile Banking - SMS alerts, transfer of funds, making payments - advantages and
  • Debit Cards vs Credit Cards, ATM (Automated Teller Machine) – Meaning; Debit card and credit card: features and differences.
300 Management

301 Management

Meaning, objectives and characteristics of management.                                                                                

  • Meaning of Management: as an activity; as a group; as a discipline; as a process. Objectives and characteristics of management.
302 Nature of Management – Science, Art and Profession

Science, Art and Profession. Self explanatory.

303 Importance of Management

Self explanatory.

304 Principles of Management

nature of principles; need for principles.

  • Nature of principles of Management; need for principles of management; Taylor’s 5 scientific principles of Management; Fayol’s 14 principles of Management; Relevance of the principles of Management in today’s business scenario. Comparison of Taylor's and Fayol’s principles.
305 Functions of Management

Planning; Organising; Staffing; Directing; Controlling and Coordinating.

  • (a) Planning:
    Meaning, steps, importance & limitation; Types of plans; Objectives, policy, procedures, method, role, budget, program – meaning, features and differences.
  • (b) Organising:
    Meaning, importance, steps; Structure of organization (line, line and staff, functional and divisional; Formal and informal organization) – Meaning, features, merits, demerits and differences between line and line & staff, functional and divisional, formal and informal; Meaning and importance of delegation of authority; Decentralization v/s Centralization, comparison between delegation and decentralization.
  • (c) Staffing:
    Meaning, steps and importance; Recruitment – Meaning and sources; Selection –Meaning and procedure; Training and development - Meaning and difference between selection and recruitment.
  • (d) Directing:
    Meaning and importance; Supervision- Meaning, functions and span of control;
    Motivation - Meaning and Maslow’stheory;
    Leadership- Meaning and qualities of a good leader;
    Communication - Meaning, objectives and process. Barriers to communication and overcoming barriers to communication.
  • (e) Controlling: Meaning, steps and importance; Relationship between Planning and Controlling; Management by Exception.
  • (f) Coordination: Meaning of Coordination; Coordination as an essence of Management.
400 Marketing

401 Marketing: Concept and Functions
  • Meaning and types of markets; meaning and features of marketing. Marketing concepts: traditional v/s modern - meaning and features of traditional and modern concepts of marketing. Comparison between marketing and selling. Objectives and importance of
    marketing; functions of marketing – meaning, features of each function of marketing.
402 Marketing Mix

Meaning and Elements.

  • Product Mix - goods and services - meaning, features and types of goods; meaning, features of services; difference between product and services. Branding: meaning and merits. Labeling: meaning and merits. Packaging: meaning and features of good packaging.
  • Price Mix – meaning, factors determining price.
  • Place Mix – meaning, channel of distribution choice of channels of distribution and physical distribution.
  • Promotion Mix – Meaning and elements.
  • Elements – Advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity – meaning, features, objectives and differences.
403 Consumer Protection

rights of consumers, methods of consumer protection.

  • Need for consumer protection; rights of consumers; methods of consumer protection – self help, legislative measures and consumer associations/NGOs, Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
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