Units and Topics
- Concept of Business Environment
- Meaning and Features of Business Environment
- Importance of Business Environment
- Dimensions of Business Environment - Macro
- Dimensions of Business Environment - Micro
- Internal factors
- External factors
- S.W.O.T. Analysis
- A basic understanding of S.W.O.T. (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) Analysis
Concept, and importance of Business Environment
- Meaning, features and importance of Business Environment;
- Dimensions of Business Environment – Micro (Internal and External factors) and Macro (Economic, social, technological, political and legal) – meaning and components.
- S.W.O.T. Analysis - A basic understanding of S.W.O.T. (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) Analysis.
- Sources of Finance for Sole Trader
- Sources of Finance for Partnership
- Sources of Finance for Joint Stock Company
- Sources of Finance for Financial Planning
- Concept of Fixed and Working Capital
- Meaning and Features of Fixed and Working Capital
- Factors Affecting Fixed and Working Capital Requirements
- Comparison Between Fixed and Working Capital
Capital: Sources of finance for sole trader; partnership; Joint Stock Company; financial planning.
- Importance of finance for business. Sources of finance for different types of business firms. Meaning of financial planning. Factors affecting capital structure. Fixed capital - meaning, factors affecting fixed capital. Working capital – meaning, types; factors affecting working capital. Comparison between fixed and working capital.
- Types of Shares - Preference Shares Equity Shares
- preference shares
- equity shares
- Finance for a Joint Stock Company - Bonus Shares
- Finance for a Joint Stock Company - Rights Issue
- Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP)
- Sweat Equity Shares
- Retained Earnings
- Meaning of retained earnings
- Merits and limitations of Retained Earnings
- Long-term Sources of Funds
- Meaning and Concept of Debentures
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Debentures
- Distinction Between Shares and Debentures
- Voting Rights
- Loans from Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions
- Meaning and Features of Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions
- Loans from Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions - Advantages and Disadvantages
- Different Types of Short Term Financial Assistance by Commercial Banks
- Short-term Sources of Funds - Public Deposits
- Short-term Sources of Funds - Trade Credit
- Short-term Sources of Funds - Factoring
- Inter Corporate Deposits and Installment Credit
- Meaning and Features of Inter corporate deposits and installment credit
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Sources of Funds
(a) Different types of shares: equity, preference.
- Bonus shares, rights issue, ESOP, Sweat Equity Shares, Retained earnings. Long-term sources of funds.
- Equity shares - features, advantages and disadvantages.
- Preference shares - features, types advantages and disadvantages; distinction between equity shares and preference shares.
- Bonus and rights issue, ESOP and Sweat Equity Shares - meaning. Distinction between bonus shares and right shares. Retained earnings – meaning, merits and demerits.
(b) Loan capital: debentures.
- Debentures – meaning; kinds of debentures; advantages and disadvantages of debentures. Distinction between shares and debentures.
(c) Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions.
- Loans from commercial banks and Financial Institutions - meaning, advantages and disadvantages.
(d) Short-term sources of funds.
- Short-term sources of funds – different types of short term financial assistance by Commercial Banks; public deposits, trade credit, customer advances, factoring, Inter corporate deposits and installment credit. Meaning, advantages and disadvantages of various sources of funds.
- Concept of Online Services
- Meaning and Features of Online services
- Transfer of Funds Through Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS)
- Banking Services with Particular Reference - National Electronic Fund Transfer
- Issue of Demand Drafts Online
- Online Payments, E-banking
- Meaning and Features of Online payments, e-Banking
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Payments, E-banking
- Mobile Banking
- SMS alerts
- transfer of funds
- making payments
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Mobile Banking
- Debit Cards Vs Credit Cards, ATM (Automated Teller Machine)
- Meaning and Features of Debit Cards vs Credit Cards, ATM (Automated Teller Machine)
- Differences Between Debit Card and Credit Card
- Online services- transfer of funds through Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS), National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), issue of demand drafts online meaning and features.
- Online payments, e-Banking – meaning and features, advantages and disadvantages
- Mobile Banking - SMS alerts, transfer of funds, making payments - advantages and
- Debit Cards vs Credit Cards, ATM (Automated Teller Machine) – Meaning; Debit card and credit card: features and differences.
- Concept of Management
- Meaning and Features of Management
Meaning, objectives and characteristics of management.
- Meaning of Management: as an activity; as a group; as a discipline; as a process. Objectives and characteristics of management.
Science, Art and Profession. Self explanatory.
- Concept of Principles of Management
- Principles of Taylor’s Scientific Management
- Fayol’s Principles of Management
- Comparison of Taylor's and Fayol’s Principles.
nature of principles; need for principles.
- Nature of principles of Management; need for principles of management; Taylor’s 5 scientific principles of Management; Fayol’s 14 principles of Management; Relevance of the principles of Management in today’s business scenario. Comparison of Taylor's and Fayol’s principles.
- Management Functions
- Planning - Concept and Importance of Planning
- Controlling - Concept and Importance of Controlling
- Coordination - Concept and Importance of Coordination
- Directing - Concept and Importance of Directing
- Organizing - Concept and Importance of Organizing
- Staffing - Concept and Importance of Staffing
- Concept of Planning
- Meaning and features of Planning
- Type of Plan
- Importance of Planning
- Limitation of Planning
- Objective of Single Use and Standing Plans
- Strategy of Single Use and Standing Plans
- Policy of Single Use and Standing Plans
- Single Use and Standing Plans - Method Rule
- Budget and Programme
- Concept of Organising
- Meaning and Features of Organising
- Organising Process
- Merits and Demerits of Organising
- Structure of Organisation
- Concept of the Divisional Structure of Organisation
- Concept of Functional Structure of Organisation
- Formal and Informal Organisation
- Concept of Line
- Concept of Line and Staff
- Concept of Delegation
- Comparison Between Delegation and Decentralization
- Concept of Staffing
- Importance of Staffing
- Staffing - Recruitment Process
- Staffing - Selection Process
- Difference Between Selection and Recruitment
- Concept of Training and Development
- Meaning and Features of Training and Development
- Types of Training
- Methods of Training
- on the job
- off the job
- Induction training
- vestibule training
- apprenticeship training
- internship training
- Classroom training
- Distinction between on the job and off the job training
- Concept of Directing
Meaning and Features of Directing
- Importance of Directing
- Concept of Supervision
- Meaning and Features of Supervision
- Function of a Supervisor
- Concept of Motivation
- Meaning and Features of Motivation
- Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- Concept of Leadership
Meaning and Features of Leadership
- Leadership - Qualities of a Good Leader
- Concept of Communication
- Meaning and Features of Communication
- Barriers to Effective Communication
- How to Overcome the Barriers
- Concept of Controlling
- Meaning and Features of Controlling
- Importance of Controlling
- Relationship Between Planning and Controlling
- Management by Exception
- Concept of Coordination
- Meaning and Features of Coordination
- Coordination as an Essence of Management
Planning; Organising; Staffing; Directing; Controlling and Coordinating.
- (a) Planning:
Meaning, steps, importance & limitation; Types of plans; Objectives, policy, procedures, method, role, budget, program – meaning, features and differences.
- (b) Organising:
Meaning, importance, steps; Structure of organization (line, line and staff, functional and divisional; Formal and informal organization) – Meaning, features, merits, demerits and differences between line and line & staff, functional and divisional, formal and informal; Meaning and importance of delegation of authority; Decentralization v/s Centralization, comparison between delegation and decentralization.
- (c) Staffing:
Meaning, steps and importance; Recruitment – Meaning and sources; Selection –Meaning and procedure; Training and development - Meaning and difference between selection and recruitment.
- (d) Directing:
Meaning and importance; Supervision- Meaning, functions and span of control;
Motivation - Meaning and Maslow’stheory;
Leadership- Meaning and qualities of a good leader;
Communication - Meaning, objectives and process. Barriers to communication and overcoming barriers to communication.
- (e) Controlling: Meaning, steps and importance; Relationship between Planning and Controlling; Management by Exception.
- (f) Coordination: Meaning of Coordination; Coordination as an essence of Management.
- Concept of Marketing
- Features of Marketing
- Marketing Functions
- Comparison Between Marketing and Selling
- Objectives and Importance of Marketing
- Meaning and types of markets; meaning and features of marketing. Marketing concepts: traditional v/s modern - meaning and features of traditional and modern concepts of marketing. Comparison between marketing and selling. Objectives and importance of
marketing; functions of marketing – meaning, features of each function of marketing.
- Concept of Marketing Mix
- Physical Environment
- Elements of Marketing Mix
- Advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity
- Marketing Mix - Product Mix
- Marketing Mix - Price Mix
- Marketing Mix - Place Mix
Meaning and Features of Place Mix
- Choice of Channels of Distribution and Physical Distribution
- Concept of Promotion (Marketing)
- Meaning and Features of Promotion
- Elements of Promotion Mix
Meaning and Elements.
- Product Mix - goods and services - meaning, features and types of goods; meaning, features of services; difference between product and services. Branding: meaning and merits. Labeling: meaning and merits. Packaging: meaning and features of good packaging.
- Price Mix – meaning, factors determining price.
- Place Mix – meaning, channel of distribution choice of channels of distribution and physical distribution.
- Promotion Mix – Meaning and elements.
- Elements – Advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and publicity – meaning, features, objectives and differences.
- Concept of Consumer Protection
- Meanng and Features of Consumer Protection
- Importance of Consumer Protection
- Rights and Responsibilities of Consumers
- Methods of Consumer Protection
- Consumer Protection Act 1986
- Legislative Measures and Consumer Associations/NGOs
rights of consumers, methods of consumer protection.
- Need for consumer protection; rights of consumers; methods of consumer protection – self help, legislative measures and consumer associations/NGOs, Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Question Papers For All Subjects
- English 2011 to 2019
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