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Sociology Class 12 CBSE (Science) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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Academic year:


100 Introducing Indian Society
200 Demographic Structure and Indian Society

-Some Theories and Concepts in Demography

  • The Malthusian Theory of Population Growth
  • The Theory of Demographic Transition
  • Common Concepts and Indicators

-Size and Growth of India’S Population

-Age Structure of the Indian Population

-The Declining Sex-ratio in India


-Rural-urban Differences

-Population Policy in India

300 Social Institutions - Continuity and Change
  • Caste and the Caste System 
    • Caste in the Past
    • Colonialism and Caste
    • Caste in the Present
    • Introduction of Caste
    • Definitions of Caste
  • Tribal Communities 
    • Classifications of Tribal Societies
    • Tribe – the Career of a Concept
    • Mainstream Attitudes Towards Tribes
    • Tribal Identity Today
  • Family and Kinship 
    • Definition and features (MacIver’s features);
    • Functions of family to be discussed explaining the reasons for its universal existence.
    • Types of family: consanguineous and conjugal family (family of origin and procreation), matriarchal and atriarchal
      family (matripotestal, patripotestal and
      avuncupotestal), nuclear and joint families.
    • Structural changes (disintegration of the joint family), functional changes;
    • Factors responsible for the changes.
    • Small family norm.

-Caste and the Caste System

  • Caste in the Past
  • Colonialism and Caste
  • Caste in the Present

-Tribal Communities

  • Classifications of Tribal Societies
  • Tribe – the Career of a Concept
  • Mainstream Attitudes Towards Tribes
  • Tribal Identity Today

-Family and Kinship

  • Nuclear and Extended Family
  • The Diverse Forms of the Family
400 Market as a Social Institution

-Sociological Perspectives on Markets and the Economy

  • Caste-based Markets and Trading Networks in Precolonial and Colonial India
  • Social Organisation of Markets – ‘Traditional Business Communities’
  • Colonialism and the Emergence of New Markets

-Understanding Capitalism as a Social System

  • Commoditisation and Consumption

-Globalisation – Interlinking of Local, Regional, National and International Markets

  • The Virtual Market – Conquering Time and Space?
  • Debate on Liberalisation – Market Versus State
500 Pattern of Social Inquality and Exclusion

-What is Social About Social Inequality and Exclusion?

  • Social Inequality
  • Social Exclusion

-Caste and Tribe – Systems Justifying and Perpetuating Inequality

  • The Caste System as a Discriminatory System
  • Untouchability
  • State and Non-state Initiatives Addressing Caste and Tribe Discrimination
  • The Other Backward Classes
  • Adivasi Struggles

-Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights

-The Struggles of the Disabled

600 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity

-Cultural Communities and the Nation-state

  • The Importance of Community Identity
  • Communities, Nations and Nation-states
  • Cultural Diversity and the India1n Nation-state – an Overview

-Regionalism in the Indian Context

-The Nation-state and Religion-related Issues and Identities

  • Minority Rights and Nation Building
  • Communalism, Secularism and the Nation-state

-State and Civil Society

700 Suggestions for Project Work
800 Structural Change

-Understanding Colonialism

-Urbanisation and Industrialisation

  • The Colonial Experience
  • The Tea Plantations
  • Industrialisation in Independent India
  • Urbanisation in Independent India
900 Cultural Change

-Social Reform Movements in the 19th and Early 20th Century

-How Do We Approach the Study of Sanskritisation, Modernisation, Secularisation and Westernisation

-Different Kinds of Social Change

  • Sanskritisation
  • Westernisation
  • Modernisation and Secularisation
1000 The Story of Indian Democracy

-The Indian Constitution

  • The Core Values of Indian Democracy
  • Constituent Assembly Debates: a History
  • Competing Interests: the Constitution and Social Change
  • Constitutional Norms and Social Justice: Interpretation to Aid Social Justice

-The Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Rural Social Transformation

  • Ideals of Panchayati Raj
  • Powers and Responsibilities of Panchayats
  • Panchayati Raj in Tribal Areas
  • Democratisation and Inequality

-Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics

1100 Change and Development in Rural Society

-Agrarian Structure: Caste and Class in Rural India

-The Impact of Land Reforms

  • The Colonial Period
  • Independent India

-The Green Revolution and Its Social Consequences

-Transformations in Rural Society After Independence

-Circulation of Labour

-Globalisation, Liberalisation, and Rural Society

1200 Change and Development in Industrial Society

-Images of Industrial Society

-Industrialisation in India

  • The Specificity of Indian Industrialisation
  • Industrialisation in the Early Years of Indian Independence
  • Globalisation, Liberalisation and Changes in Indian Industry

-How People Find Jobs

-How is Work Carried Out?

-Working Conditions

-Home-based Work

-Strikes and Unions

1300 Globalisation and Social Change

-Are Global Interconnections New to World and to India

  • The Early Years
  • Colonialism and the Global Connection
  • Independent India and the World

-Understanding Globalisation

  • The Different Dimensions of Globalisation
  • Global Communications
  • Globalisation and Labour
  • Globalisation and Employment
  • Globalisation and Political Changes
  • Globalisation and Culture
  • Gender and Culture
  • Culture of Consumption
  • Corporate Culture
1400 Mass Media and Communication Process

-The Beginnings of Modern Mass Media

-Mass Media in Independent India

  • The Approach
  • Radio
  • Television
  • Print Media

-Globalisation and the Media

  • Print Media
  • Television
  • Radio
1500 Social Movements

-Features of a Social Movement

  • Distinguishing Social Change and Social Movements

-Sociology and Social Movements

  • Why the Study of Social Movements is Important for Sociology
  • Theories of Social Movements

-Types of Social Movements

  • One Way of Classifying: Reformist, Redemptive, Revolutionary
  • Another Way of Classifying: Old and New

-Ecological Movements

-Class Based Movements

  • Peasant Movements
  • Workers’ Movements

-Caste Based Movements

  • The Dalit Movement
  • Backward Class Castes Movements
  • The Upper Caste Response

-The Tribal Movements

  • Jharkhand
  • The North East

-The Women’s Movement

  • The 19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’S Organisations
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