Sociology Commerce (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2024-25


CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus - Free PDF Download

CBSE Syllabus 2024-25 Class 12: The CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 CBSE Class 12 Sociology Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new CBSE syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

Academic year:


CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus for Chapter 1: Indian Society

1 Introducing Indian Society
  • Introduction to Indian Society  
    • Colonialism
    • Nationalism
    • Class
    • Community
2 Demographic Structure and Indian Society
  • Introduction to the Demographic Structure of the Indian Society  
  • Some Theories and Concepts in Demography  
    • The Malthusian Theory of Population Growth
    • The Theory of Demographic Transition
    • Common Concepts and Indicators
  • Size and Growth of India’s Population  
  • Age Structure of the Indian Population  
  • The Declining Sex-ratio in India  
  • Literacy  
  • Rural-urban Differences  
    • Rural-Urban Linkages and Divisions
  • Population Policy in India  
3 Social Institutions - Continuity and Change
  • Introduction to Social Institutions - Continuity and Change  
  • Caste and the Caste System  
    • Introduction of Caste
    • Definitions of Caste
    • Caste in the Past
    • Colonialism and Caste
    • Caste in the Present
  • Tribal Communities  
    • Classifications of Tribal Societies
      (i) Permanent Traits
      (ii) Acquired Traits
    • Tribe - The Career of a Concept
    • Mainstream Attitudes Towards Tribes
      (a) National development versus tribal development
    • Tribal Identity Today
  • Family and Kinship  
    • Definition and features (MacIver’s features)
    • Functions of the family to be discussed explaining the reasons for its universal existence.
    • Types of the family:
      (i) Consanguineous and conjugal family (family of origin and procreation),
      (ii) The Diverse forms of Family: Matriarchal and atriarchal family (matripotestal, patripotestal, and avuncupotestal),
      (iii) Nuclear and joint families
    • Structural changes (disintegration of the joint family), functional changes
    • Factors responsible for the changes
    • Small family norm
4 Market as a Social Institution
  • Introduction to the Market as a Social Institution  
  • Sociological Perspectives on Markets and the Economy  
    • A weekly 'Tribal Market' in Dhorai Village, Bastar, Chattisgarh
    • Caste-based Markets and Trading Networks in Precolonial and Colonial India
    • Social Organisation of Markets – ‘Traditional Business Communities’
    • Colonialism and the Emergence of New Markets
  • Understanding Capitalism as a Social System  
    • Commoditisation and Consumption
  • Globalisation – Interlinking of Local, Regional, National and International Markets  
    • The Virtual Market – Conquering Time and Space?
    • Debate on Liberalisation – Market Versus State
5 Pattern of Social Inquality and Exclusion
  • Introduction to Pattern of Social Inquality and Exclusion  
  • What is Social About Social Inequality and Exclusion?  
    • Social Inequality
    • Social Exclusion
  • Caste and Tribe – Systems Justifying and Perpetuating Inequality  
    • The Caste System as a Discriminatory System - The Protection of Religious Minorities
    • Untouchability
    • State and Non-state Initiatives Addressing Caste and Tribe Discrimination
    • The Other Backward Classes
    • Adivasi Struggles - The marginalization of Tribal Communities
  • Struggle for Women’s Equality and Rights  
  • The Struggles of the Disabled  
    •  Caring for the Differently Abled
6 The Challenges of Cultural Diversity
  • Introduction to the Challenges of Cultural Diversity  
  • Cultural Communities and the Nation-state  
    • Problems of Communalism, Regionalism, Casteism, and Patriarchy
    • The Importance of Community Identity
    • Communities, Nations and Nation-states
    • Cultural Diversity and the Indian Nation-state – an Overview
  • Regionalism in the Indian Context  
  • The Nation-state and Religion-related Issues and Identities  
    • Minority Rights and Nation Building
    • Communalism, Secularism and the Nation-state
  • State and Civil Society  
    • Role of the State in a Plural, and Unequal Society
7 Suggestions for Project Work
  • Variety of Methods  
    • Survey Method
    • Interviews
    • Observation
    • Combination of more than one method
  • Possible Themes and Subjects for Small Research Projects  
    1. Public Transport
    2. Role of communication media in social life
    3. Household appliances and domestic work
    4. The use of public space
    5. Changing aspirations of different age groups
    6. The 'Biography' of a commodity

CBSE Class 12 Sociology Syllabus for Chapter 2: Social Change and Development in India

1 Structural Change
  • Introduction to Structural Change  
  • Understanding Colonialism  
  • Urbanisation and Industrialisation  
    • The Colonial Experience
    • The Tea Plantations
    • Industrialisation in Independent India
    • Urbanisation in Independent India
2 Cultural Change
  • Introduction to Cultural Change  
  • Social Reform Movements in the 19th and Early 20th Century  
    • Social Reform Movements and Laws
  • How Do We Approach the Study of Sanskritisation, Modernisation, Secularisation and Westernisation  
  • Different Kinds of Social Change  
    • Sanskritisation
    • Westernisation
    • Modernisation
    • Secularisation
3 The Story of Indian Democracy
  • Introduction to the Story of Indian Democracy  
  • The Indian Constitution  
    • The Core Values of Indian Democracy
    • Constituent Assembly Debates: a History
    • Competing Interests: the Constitution and Social Change
    • Constitutional Norms and Social Justice: Interpretation to Aid Social Justice
  • The Panchayati Raj and the Challenges of Rural Social Transformation  
    • Ideals of Panchayati Raj
    • Powers and Responsibilities of Panchayats
    • Panchayati Raj in Tribal Areas
    • Democratisation and Inequality
  • Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Democratic Politics  
4 Change and Development in Rural Society
  • Introduction to Change and Development in Rural Society  
  • Agrarian Structure: Caste and Class in Rural India  
  • The Impact of Land Reforms  
    • The Colonial Period
    • Independent India
  • The Green Revolution and Its Social Consequences  
  • Transformations in Rural Society After Independence  
  • Circulation of Labour  
  • Globalisation, Liberalisation, and Rural Society  
5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
  • Introduction to Change and Development in Industrial Society  
  • Images of Industrial Society  
  • Industrialisation in India  
    • The Specificity of Indian Industrialisation
    • Industrialisation in the Early Years of Indian Independence
    • Globalisation, Liberalisation and Changes in Indian Industry
  • How People Find Jobs  
  • How is Work Carried Out?  
  • Working Conditions  
  • Home-based Work  
  • Strikes and Unions  
6 Globalisation and Social Change
  • Introduction to Globalisation and Social Change  
  • Are Global Interconnections New to World and to India  
    • The Early Years
    • Colonialism and the Global Connection
    • Independent India and the World
  • Understanding Globalisation  
    • The Different Dimensions of Globalisation
    • Global Communications
    • Globalisation and Labour
    • Globalisation and Employment
    • Globalisation and Political Changes
    • Globalisation and Culture
    • Gender and Culture
    • Culture of Consumption
    • Corporate Culture
7 Mass Media and Communication Process
  • Introduction to Mass Media and Communication Process  
  • The Beginnings of Modern Mass Media  
  • Mass Media in Independent India  
    • The Approach
    • Radio
    • Television
    • Print Media
  • Globalisation and the Media  
    • Print Media
    • Television
    • Radio
8 Social Movements
  • Introduction to Social Movements  
  • Features of a Social Movement  
    • Distinguishing social change and social movements
  • Sociology and Social Movements  
    • Why the Study of Social Movements is Important for Sociology
    • Theories of Social Movements
  • Types of Social Movements  
    • One way of classifying: Reformist, Redemptive, Revolutionary
    • Another way of classifying: Old and New
    • Distinguishing the new social movement from the old social movements
    • Can we apply the Distinction between old and new social movements in the Indian context?
  • Ecological Movements  
  • Class Based Movements  
    • Peasant Movements
    • Workers’ Movements
  • Caste Based Movements  
    • The Dalit Movement
    • Backward Class Castes Movements
    • The Upper Caste Response
  • The Tribal Movements  
    • Jharkhand
    • The North East
  • Womens’ Movement in India  
    • The 19th century social reform movements and early women's organisations
    • Agrarian struggles and revolts
    • Post 1947

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