## Units and Topics

# | Unit/Topic | Marks |
---|---|---|

1 | Relations and Functions | - |

2 | Algebra | - |

3 | Calculus | - |

4 | Vectors and Three-dimensional Geometry | - |

5 | Linear Programming | - |

6 | Probability | - |

7 | Sets | - |

Total | - |

## Syllabus

Prescribed Books:

- Mathematics Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publications
- Mathematics Part I- Textbook for Class XII, NCERT Publication
- Mathematics Part II - Textbook for Class XII, NCERT Publication
- Mathematics Exemplar Problem for Class XI, Published by NCERT
- Mathematics Exemplar Problem for Class XII, Published by NCERT

- Inverse Trigonometric Functions (Simplification and Examples)
- Properties of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Inverse of Sin, Inverse of cosin, Inverse of tan, Inverse of cot, Inverse of Sec, Inverse of Cosec

- Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Basic Concepts of Trigonometric Functions
sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, cosecant function

- Definition, range, domain, principal value branch.
- Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions.
- Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

- Introduction of Relations and Functions
- Concept of Binary Operations
Definition, Commutative Binary Operations, Associative Binary Operations , Identity Binary Operation, Invertible Binary Operation

- Inverse of a Function
- Composition of Functions and Invertible Function
- Types of Functions
- one-one (or injective)
- many-one
- onto (or surjective)
- one-one and onto (or bijective)

- Types of Relations
- One-One Relation(Injective)
- Many-one relation
- Into relation
- Onto relation (Surjective)

Reflexive, symmetric, transitive, not reflexive, not symmetric and not transitive.

- Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations.
- One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

- Applications of Determinants and Matrices
- Elementary Transformations
- Inverse of a Matrix
- Properties of Determinants
- Property 1 - The value of the determinant remains unchanged if its rows are turned into columns and columns are turned into rows.
- Property 2 - If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant are interchanged then the value of the determinant changes only in sign.
- Property 3 - If any two rows ( or columns) of a determinant are identical then the value of the determinant is zero.
- Property 4 - If each element of a row (or column) of a determinant is multiplied by a constant k then the value of the new determinant is k times the value of the original determinant.
- Property 5 - If each element of a row (or column) is expressed as the sum of two numbers then the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants
- Property 6 - If a constant multiple of all elements of any row (or column) is added to the corresponding elements of any other row (or column ) then the value of the new determinant so obtained is the same as that of the original determinant.
- Property 7 - (Triangle property) - If all the elements of a determinant above or below the diagonal are zero then the value of the determinant is equal to the product of its diagonal elements.

- Determinant of a Square Matrix
up to 3 x 3 matrices

- Determinants of Matrix of Order One and Two
- Introduction of Determinant
- Area of a Triangle
- Minors and Co-factors
- Determinant of a Matrix of Order 3 × 3
- 1st, 2nd and 3rd Row
- 1st, 2nd and 3rd Columns
- Expansion along first Row (R1), Expansion along second row (R2),Expansion along first Column (C1)

- Rule A=KB

- Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix.
- Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

- Introduction of Operations on Matrices
- Inverse of a Matrix
- Multiplication of Two Matrices
- Negative of Matrix
- Operations on Matrices
- Properties of Matrix Addition
- Commutative Law
- Associative Law
- Existence of additive identity
- The existence of additive inverse

- Multiplication of Matrices
Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices, Zero matrix as the product of two non zero matrices

- Properties of Matrix Addition
- Concept of Transpose of a Matrix
- Subtraction of Matrices
- Symmetric and Skew Symmetric Matrices
- Types of Matrices
- Matrices
- Matrices Notation
Matrices Notation

- Matrices Notation
- Invertible Matrices
- Elementary Operation (Transformation) of a Matrix
- Equality of Matrices
- Order of a Matrix
- Introduction of Matrices
- Properties of Transpose of the Matrices

- Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero andidentity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices.
- Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar.
- Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication.
- Non commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order).
- Concept of elementary row and column operations.
- Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

- Derivative - Exponential and Log
- Concept of Differentiability
- Proof Derivative X^n Sin Cos Tan
f(x) = xn

f(x) = sin x

f(x) = cos x

f(x) = tan x

- Infinite Series
- Higher Order Derivative
Derivative of Functions Which Expressed in Higher Order Derivative Form

- Algebra of Continuous Functions
- Continuous Function of Point
Continuous left hand limit

Continuous right hand limit

- Mean Value Theorem
- Second Order Derivative
- Derivatives of Functions in Parametric Forms
- Logarithmic Differentiation
- Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Derivatives of Implicit Functions
- Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Derivatives of Composite Functions - Chain Rule
- Concept of Continuity

- Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
- Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof ) and their geometric interpretation.

- Maximum and Minimum Values of a Function in a Closed Interval
- Maxima and Minima
- Simple Problems on Applications of Derivatives
Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations)

- Graph of Maxima and Minima
- Approximations
- Tangents and Normals
- Increasing and Decreasing Functions
- Rate of Change of Bodies Or Quantities
- Introduction to Applications of Derivatives

- Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool).
- Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).

- Area of the Region Bounded by a Curve and a Line
circle-line, elipse-ine, parabola-line

- Area Between Two Curves
- Area Under Simple Curves

- Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

- Methods of Solving First Order, First Degree Differential Equations
- Solutions of Linear Differential Equation
Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:-

- dy/dx + py= q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
- dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

- Formation of a Differential Equation Whose General Solution is Given
- General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation
- Order and Degree of a Differential Equation
- Basic Concepts of Differential Equation
- Procedure to Form a Differential Equation that Will Represent a Given Family of Curves

- Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.
- Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.
- Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree.

Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:

- dy/dx + py= q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
- dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

- Definite Integrals Problems
- Indefinite Integral Problems
- Comparison Between Differentiation and Integration
- Geometrical Interpretation of Indefinite Integral
- Integrals of Some Particular Functions
- Indefinite Integral by Inspection
- Properties of Indefinite Integral
- Integration Using Trigonometric Identities
- Introduction of Integrals
- Evaluation of Definite Integrals by Substitution
- Properties of Definite Integrals
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Area function, First fundamental theorem of integral calculus and Second fundamental theorem of integral calculus

- Definite Integral as the Limit of a Sum
- Evaluation of Simple Integrals of the Following Types and Problems
- Methods of Integration - Integration by Parts
- Methods of Integration - Integration Using Partial Fractions
- Methods of Integration - Integration by Substitution
- Integration as an Inverse Process of Differentiation

- Integration as inverse process of differentiation.
- Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
- Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).
- Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.

- Three - Dimensional Geometry Examples and Solutions
- Introduction of Three Dimensional Geometry
- Plane
- Relation Between Direction Ratio and Direction Cosines
- Coplanarity of Two Lines
- Distance of a Point from a Plane
- Angle Between Line and a Plane
- Angle Between Two Planes
- Angle Between Two Lines
- Vector and Cartesian Equation of a Plane
- Shortest Distance Between Two Lines
- Distance between two skew lines
- Distance between parallel lines

- Equation of a Line in Space
- Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line

- Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.
- Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines.
- Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.
- Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.
- Distance of a point from a plane.

- Concept of Direction Cosines
- Properties of Vector Addition
- Geometrical Interpretation of Scalar
- Scalar Triple Product of Vectors
volume of a parallelepiped, co-planarity

- Product of Two Vectors
- Position Vector of a Point Dividing a Line Segment in a Given Ratio
- Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar
- Addition of Vectors
- Introduction of Vector
- Magnitude and Direction of a Vector
- Basic Concepts of Vector Algebra
- Position Vector
- Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Vector

- Types of Vectors
Zero Vector, Unit Vector, Coinitial Vectors, Collinear Vectors, Equal Vectors, Negative of a Vector (Free Vector)

- Components of a Vector
- Section formula
for internal and external division

- Vector Joining Two Points
- Vectors Examples and Solutions
- Introduction of Product of Two Vectors

- Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.
- Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector.
- Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.
- Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.

- Introduction of Linear Programming
- Mathematical Formulation of Linear Programming Problem
- Different Types of Linear Programming Problems
Different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems:-

- Manufacturing problem
- Diet Problem
- Transportation problem

- Graphical Method of Solving Linear Programming Problems
- Linear Programming Problem and Its Mathematical Formulation

- Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (LP.) problems, mathematical formulation of LP. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded or unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

- Variance of a Random Variable
- Probability Examples and Solutions
- Conditional Probability
- Multiplication Theorem on Probability
- Independent Events
- Baye'S Theorem
- Partition of a sample space
- Theorem of total probability

- Random Variables and Its Probability Distributions
- Mean of a Random Variable
- Bernoulli Trials and Binomial Distribution
- Introduction of Probability
- Random experiment
- Outcome
- Equally likely outcomes
- Sample space
- Event

- Properties of Conditional Probability

- Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes' theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.