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Geography Class 12 CBSE (Arts) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 12 Geography: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 12 Geography syllabus for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12 Geography Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus pdf 2022-2023. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12 Geography in addition to this.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for Fundamentals of Human Geography

1 Human Geography - Nature and Scope
3 Population Composition
  • Population Composition 
    1. Age Structure
    2. Sex composition
    3. Literacy and education
    4. Occupational Structure
    5. Rural-Urban Composition
    6. Linguistic Classification
    7. Religious Composition
    8. Composition of Working Population
    9. Age-Sex Pyramid
    10. Expanding Populations
    11. Constant Population
    12. Declining Populations
  • Age and Sex Composition 
  • Rural Urban Composition 
    • Literacy
    • Occupational Structure
5 Primary Activities
  • Introduction to Primary Activities 
  • Hunting and Gathering 
  • Pastoralism 
    • Nomadic Herding
    • Commercial Livestock Rearing
  • Agriculture 
    • Institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.
    • Land Reforms
    • Land ceiling
    • The Green Revolution
    • Marketed surplus
    • The Debate Over Subsidies
    • Foodgrain Production
    • Productivity Position of Tamil Nadu and India
    • Subsistence Agriculture
    1. Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
    2. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
    • Plantation Agriculture
    • Extensive Commercial Grain Cultivation
    • Mixed Farming
    • Dairy Farming
    • Mediterranean Agriculture
    • Market Gardening and Horticulture
    • Co-operative Farming
    • Collective Farming
  • Primary Occupations 
    • Mining 
      • Factors Affecting Mining Activity
      • Methods of Mining
6 Secondary Activities
  • Introduction to Secondary Activities 
  • Manufacturing 
    • Characteristics of Modern Large Scale Manufacturing
    • Specialisation of Skills/Methods of Production
    • Mechanisation
    • Technological Innovation
    • Organisational Structure and Stratification
    • Uneven Geographic Distribution
    1. Access to Market
    2. Access to Raw Material
    3. Access to Labour Supply
    4. Access to Sources of Energy
    5. Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities
    • Government Policy
    • Access to Agglomeration Economies/ Links between Industries 
    • Classification of Manufacturing Industries
    • Industries based on Size
  • Household Industries or Cottage Manufacturing 
    • Small Scale Manufacturing
    • Large Scale Manufacturing
    • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials
    1. Agro based Industries 
    2. Mineral based Industries
    3. Chemical based Industries
    4. Forest based Raw Material using Industries
    5. Animal based Industries
    • Industries Based On Output/Product
  • Industries Based on Ownership 
    • Traditional Large-Scale Industrial Regions
    • The Ruhr Coal-field, Germany
    • Iron and Steel Industry
    • Cotton Textile Industry
    • Concept of High Technology Industry
7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
8 Transport and Communication
  • Transport and Communication 
  • Business Services 
    • Transport 
      • Meaning
      • Modes of Transport
      • Road Transport
      • Rail Transport
      • Air Transport
    • Communication 
      • Meaning
      • Types of Communication
      • Postal Services
      1. Mail Services
      2. Specialised Postal Services
      3. Money Remittance Services
      4. Retail Services
      • Modem means of communication
      1. Courier Service
      2. Internet
      3. e-mail
      • Satellite Communication
      • Cyber Space – Internet
  • Mode of Transport 
    • Land Transport
    • Roads
    • Highways
    • Border Roads
    • Railways
    • Trans–Continental Railways
    • Trans–Siberian Railway
    • Trans–Canadian Railways
    • The Union and Pacific Railway
    • The Australian Trans–Continental Railway
    • The Orient Express
  • Water Transport 
    • Sea Routes
    • Important Sea Routes
    • The Northern Atlantic Sea Route
    • The Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Sea Route
    • The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route
    • The Southern Atlantic Sea Route
    • The North Pacific Sea Route
    • The South Pacific Sea Route
    • Coastal Shipping
    • Shipping Canals
    • The Suez Canal
    • The Panama Canal
    • Inland Waterways
    • The Rhine Waterways
    • The Danube Waterway
    • The Volga Waterway
    • The Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Seaway
    • The Mississippi Waterways
  • Air Transport 
    • Inter-Continental Air Routes
  • Pipelines 
    • These modes of transport are to be studied with regard to – Location and state-wise distribution of air, road and rail routes
    • location of waterways and pipelines; natural and economic factors that govern their distribution
    • Density and growth. Patterns in India.
9 International Trade
  • Concept of International Trade 
    • Export Trade
    • Import Trade
    • Entrepot Trade
  • History of International Trade 
    • Why Does International Trade Exist?
    • Basis of International Trade
    • Important Aspects of International Trade
    1. Volume of Trade
    2. Composition of Trade
    3. Direction of Trade
    4. Balance of Trade
    • Types of International Trade
    • Case for Free Trade
    • World Trade Organisation
    • Regional Trade Blocs
    • Concerns Related to International Trade
  • Gateway of International Trade 
    • Ports
    • Types of Port
10 Human Settlements
  • Human Settlements 
  • Classification of Settlements 
    • Rural Urban Dichotomy
  • Types and Patterns of Settlements 
    • Rural Settlements
    • Water Supply
    • Land
    • Upland
    • Building Material
    • Defence
    • Planned Settlements
    • Rural Settlement Patterns
    • Problems of Rural Settlements
    • Urban Settlements
    • Classification of Urban Settlements
    • Population Size
    • Occupational Structure
    • Administration
    • Location
    • Functions of Urban Centres
    • Administrative Towns
    • Trading and Commercial Towns
    • Cultural Towns
  • Classifica Assificaassification of Towns on the Basis of Forms 
    • Addis Ababa (The New Flower)
    • Canberra
    • Types of Urban Settlements
    • Town
    • City
    • Conurbation
    • Million City
    • Distribution of Mega Cities
    • Problems of Human Settlements in Developing Countries
    • Problems of Urban Settlements
    • Economic Problems
    • Socio-cultural Problems
    • Environmental Problems

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for India - People and Economy

1 Population : Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
2 Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences
  • Migration 
    • On the basis of Region:
      A. Internal migration
      B. External Migration
    • Classification by Duration:
      A. Short-term
      B. Long-Term
  • Streams of Migration 
    • Rural-rural, rural- urban, urban-urban and urban-rural.
    • Causes for migration - natural, economic, political and social.
    • Comparing the consequences of each type of migration on cities and rural areas.
  • Spatial Variation in Migration 
  • Causes of Migration 
  • Consequences of Migration 
    • Economic Consequences
    • Demographic Consequences
    • Social Consequences
    • Environmental Consequences
    • Others
4 Human Settlements
5 Land Resources and Agriculture
6 Water Resources
7 Mineral and Energy Resources
8 Manufacturing Industries
9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
  • Concept of Planning 
    • Meaning and features of Planning
    • Type of Plan
    • Importance of Planning
    • Economic Planning in India
    • Case for planning
    • Case against planning
    • Target Area Planning
    • Hill Area Development Programme
    • Drought Prone Area Programme
    • Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur* Region
  • Concept of Sustainable Development 
10 Transport and Communication
12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for Practical Work in Geography

1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
2 Data Processing
3 Graphical Representation of Data
4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
5 Field Surveys
6 Spatial Information Technology
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