Geography Commerce (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2024-25

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CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus - Free PDF Download

CBSE Syllabus 2024-25 Class 12: The CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 CBSE Class 12 Geography Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new CBSE syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Human Geography

1 Human Geography - Nature and Scope
  • Introduction to Human Geography Nature and Scopes  
  • Nature of Human Geography  
    • Naturalisation of Humans and Humanisation of Nature
    • Human Geography through the Corridors of Time
    • Fields and Sub-fields of Human Geography
  • Scopes of Human Geography  
2 The World Population - Distribution, Density and Growth
  • The World Population - Distribution, Density and Growth  
  • Patterns of Population Distribution in the World  
  • Density of Population  
  • Factors Influencing the Distribution of the Population  
    • Geographical Factors
    • Economic Factors
    • Social and Cultural Factors
  • Population Growth  
  • Trends in Population Growth  
  • Doubling Time of World Population  
  • Spatial Pattern of Population Change  
  • Impact of Population Change  
  • Demographic Transition  
  • Population Control Measures  
3 Population Composition
  • Population Composition  
    • Age Structure
    • Sex composition
    • Literacy and education
    • Occupational Structure
    • Rural-Urban Composition
    • Linguistic Classification
    • Religious Composition
    • Composition of Working Population
    • Age-Sex Pyramid
    • Expanding Populations
    • Constant Population
    • Declining Populations
  • Age and Sex Composition  
    • Age Structure
    • Age-Sex Pyramid
    • Expanding Populations
    • Constant Population
    • Declining Populations
  • Rural Urban Composition  
    • Literacy
    • Occupational Structure
4 Human Development
  • Concept of Human Development  
  • Growth and Development  
  • Four Pillars of Human Development  
    • Equity
    • Sustainability
    • Productivity
    • Empowerment
  • Approaches of Human Development  
  • Measuring Human Development  
  • International Comparisons  
5 Primary Activities
  • Introduction to Primary Activities  
  • Hunting and Gathering  
  • Pastoralism  
    • Nomadic Herding
    • Commercial Livestock Rearing
  • Agriculture  
    • Institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.
    • Land Reforms
    • Land ceiling
    • The Green Revolution
    • Marketed surplus
    • The Debate Over Subsidies
    • Foodgrain Production
    • Productivity Position of Tamil Nadu and India
    • Subsistence Agriculture
    1. Primitive Subsistence Agriculture
    2. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
    • Plantation Agriculture
    • Extensive Commercial Grain Cultivation
    • Mixed Farming
    • Dairy Farming
    • Mediterranean Agriculture
    • Market Gardening and Horticulture
    • Co-operative Farming
    • Collective Farming
  • Primary Occupations  
    • Mining  
      • Factors Affecting Mining Activity
      • Methods of Mining
6 Secondary Activities
  • Introduction to Secondary Activities  
  • Manufacturing  
    • Characteristics of Modern Large Scale Manufacturing
    • Specialisation of Skills/Methods of Production
    • Mechanisation
    • Technological Innovation
    • Organisational Structure and Stratification
    • Uneven Geographic Distribution
    1. Access to Market
    2. Access to Raw Material
    3. Access to Labour Supply
    4. Access to Sources of Energy
    5. Access to Transportation and Communication Facilities
    • Government Policy
    • Access to Agglomeration Economies/ Links between Industries 
    • Classification of Manufacturing Industries
    • Industries based on Size
  • Household Industries Or Cottage Manufacturing  
    • Small Scale Manufacturing
    • Large Scale Manufacturing
    • Industries based on Inputs/Raw Materials
    1. Agro based Industries 
    2. Mineral based Industries
    3. Chemical based Industries
    4. Forest based Raw Material using Industries
    5. Animal based Industries
    • Industries Based On Output/Product
  • Industries Based on Ownership  
    • Traditional Large-Scale Industrial Regions
    • The Ruhr Coal-field, Germany
    • Iron and Steel Industry
    • Cotton Textile Industry
    • Concept of High Technology Industry
7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
  • Tertiary and Quaternary Activities  
  • Types of Tertiary Activities  
    • Trade and commerce
    • Retail Trading
    • Wholesale Trading
    • Transport
    • Communication
    • Telecommunications
    • Services
  • People Engaged in Tertiary Activities  
  • Some Selected Examples  
    • Tourism
    • Tourist Regions
    • Factors Affecting Tourism
    • Tourist Attractions
    • Medical Services for Overseas Patients in India
  • Quaternary Activities  
  • Quinary Activities  
  • The Digital Divide  
8 Transport and Communication
  • Transport and Communication  
  • Business Services  
    • Transport  
      • Meaning
      • Modes of Transport
      • Road Transport
      • Rail Transport
      • Air Transport
    • Communication  
      • Meaning
      • Types of Communication
      • Postal Services
      1. Mail Services
      2. Specialised Postal Services
      3. Money Remittance Services
      4. Retail Services
      • Modem means of communication
      1. Courier Service
      2. Internet
      3. e-mail
      • Satellite Communication
      • Cyber Space – Internet
  • Mode of Transport  
    • Land Transport
    • Roads
    • Highways
    • Border Roads
    • Railways
    • Trans–Continental Railways
    • Trans–Siberian Railway
    • Trans–Canadian Railways
    • The Union and Pacific Railway
    • The Australian Trans–Continental Railway
    • The Orient Express
  • Water Transport  
    • Sea Routes
    • Important Sea Routes
    • The Northern Atlantic Sea Route
    • The Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Sea Route
    • The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route
    • The Southern Atlantic Sea Route
    • The North Pacific Sea Route
    • The South Pacific Sea Route
    • Coastal Shipping
    • Shipping Canals
    • The Suez Canal
    • The Panama Canal
    • Inland Waterways
    • The Rhine Waterways
    • The Danube Waterway
    • The Volga Waterway
    • The Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Seaway
    • The Mississippi Waterways
  • Air Transport  
    • Inter-Continental Air Routes
  • Pipelines  
    • These modes of transport are to be studied with regard to – Location and state-wise distribution of air, road and rail routes
    • location of waterways and pipelines; natural and economic factors that govern their distribution
    • Density and growth. Patterns in India.
9 International Trade
  • Concept of International Trade  
    • Export Trade
    • Import Trade
    • Entrepot Trade
  • History of International Trade  
    • Why Does International Trade Exist?
    • Basis of International Trade
    • Important Aspects of International Trade
    1. Volume of Trade
    2. Composition of Trade
    3. Direction of Trade
    4. Balance of Trade
    • Types of International Trade
    • Case for Free Trade
    • World Trade Organisation
    • Regional Trade Blocs
    • Concerns Related to International Trade
  • Gateway of International Trade  
    • Ports
    • Types of Port
10 Human Settlements
  • Human Settlements  
  • Classification of Settlements  
    • Rural Urban Dichotomy
  • Types and Patterns of Settlements  
    • Rural Settlements
    • Water Supply
    • Land
    • Upland
    • Building Material
    • Defence
    • Planned Settlements
    • Rural Settlement Patterns
    • Problems of Rural Settlements
    • Urban Settlements
    • Classification of Urban Settlements
    • Population Size
    • Occupational Structure
    • Administration
    • Location
    • Functions of Urban Centres
    • Administrative Towns
    • Trading and Commercial Towns
    • Cultural Towns
  • Classification of Towns on the Basis of Forms  
    • Addis Ababa (The New Flower)
    • Canberra
    • Types of Urban Settlements
    • Town
    • City
    • Conurbation
    • Million City
    • Megalopolis
    • Distribution of Mega Cities
    • Problems of Human Settlements in Developing Countries
    • Problems of Urban Settlements
    • Economic Problems
    • Socio-cultural Problems
    • Environmental Problems

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for Chapter 2: India - People and Economy

1 Population : Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
  • Distribution of Population  
  • Density of Population  
  • Population Growth  
  • Regional Variation in Population Growth  
  • Population Composition  
    • Age Structure
    • Sex composition
    • Literacy and education
    • Occupational Structure
    • Rural-Urban Composition
    • Linguistic Classification
    • Religious Composition
    • Composition of Working Population
    • Age-Sex Pyramid
    • Expanding Populations
    • Constant Population
    • Declining Populations
  • Promoting Gender Sensitivity  
    • Promoting Gender Sensitivity through ‘Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao’ Social Campaign
2 Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences
  • Migration  
    • On the basis of Region:
      A. Internal migration
      B. External Migration
    • Classification by Duration:
      A. Short-term
      B. Long-Term
  • Streams of Migration  
    • Rural-rural, rural- urban, urban-urban and urban-rural.
    • Causes for migration - natural, economic, political and social.
    • Comparing the consequences of each type of migration on cities and rural areas.
  • Spatial Variation in Migration  
  • Causes of Migration  
  • Consequences of Migration  
    • Economic Consequences
    • Demographic Consequences
    • Social Consequences
    • Environmental Consequences
    • Others
3 Human Development
  • Concept of Human Development  
  • Human Development in India  
    • Indicators of Economic Attainments
  • Indicators of a Healthy Life  
    • Indicators of Social Empowerment
  • Human Development Index in India  
  • Population, Environment and Development  
4 Human Settlements
  • Human Settlements  
  • Concept of Rural Settlements  
    • Size and number of villages as per the latest census.
    • Types and patterns in hill areas, plains and coastal locations.
  • Types of Rural Settlements  
    • Clustered Settlements
    • Semi-Clustered Settlements
    • Hamleted Settlements
    • Dispersed Settlements
  • Concept of Urban Settlements  
    • Size classification of towns as per the latest census.
    • Study of population growth in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai from1951 till the latest census.
    • Evolution of Towns in India
  • Urbanisation in India  
    • Classification of Towns on the basis of Population Size
    • Functional Classification of Towns
5 Land Resources and Agriculture
  • Land Resources and Agriculture  
  • Land Uses Categories  
  • Land Use Changes in India  
    • The size of the economy
    • The composition of the economy
  • Common Property Resources  
  • Agriculture Land Use in India  
    • Cropping Seasons in India
    • Types of Farming
    1. Foodgrains
    2. Oil seeds
    3. Fibre Crops
    4. Other Crops
  • Agricultural Development in India  
    • Growth of Agricultural Output and Technology
  • Problems of Indian Agriculture  
    • Dependence on Erratic Monsoon
    • Low productivity
    • Constraints of Financial Resources and Indebtedness
    • Lack of Land Reforms
    • Small Farm Size and Fragmentation of Landholdings
    • Lack of Commercialisation
    • Vast Underemployment
    • Degradation of Cultivable Land
6 Water Resources
  • Concept of Water Resources  
    • Types of water resources: Surface and ground water.
    • Meaning, importance and need for irrigation in India.
  • Water Resources of India  
    • Surface Water Resources
    • Groundwater Resources
    • Lagoons and Backwaters
    • Water Demand and Utilisation
    • Demand of Water for Irrigation
    • Emerging Water Problems
  • Deterioration of Water Quality  
    • Water Conservation and Management
    • Prevention of Water Pollution
    • Recycle and Reuse of Water
  • Watershed Management  
  • Rainwater Harvesting  
7 Mineral and Energy Resources
  • Mineral and Energy Resources  
  • Types of Mineral Resources  
  • Distribution of Minerals in India  
    • The North-Eastern Plateau Region
    • The South-Western Plateau Region
    • The North-Western Region
    • Ferrous Mineral
    • Non-Ferrous Minerals
    • Non-metallic Minerals
    • Energy Resources
    • Non-Conventional Energy Sources
  • Conservation of Minerals Resources  
8 Manufacturing Industries
  • Manufacturing Industries  
  • Types of Industries  
    • Location of Industries
    1. Raw Materials
    2. Power
    3. Market
    4. Transport
    5. Labour
    6. Historical Factors
    7. Industrial Policy
    • Major Industries
    1. The Iron and Steel Industry
    2. Integrated Steel Plants
    3. The Cotton Textile Industry
    4. Sugar Industry
    5. Petrochemical Industries
  • Knowledge Based Industries  
  • Liberalisation, Privatisation, Globalisation (LPG) and Industrial Development in India  
  • Industrial Regions in India  
9 Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
  • Concept of Planning  
    • Meaning and features of Planning
    • Type of Plan
    • Importance of Planning
    • Economic Planning in India
    • Case for planning
    • Case against planning
    • Target Area Planning
    • Hill Area Development Programme
    • Drought Prone Area Programme
    • Case Study – Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur* Region
  • Concept of Sustainable Development  
    • Case Study - Indira Gandhi Canal (Nahar) Command Area
    • Measures for Promotion of Sustainable
      Development
10 Transport and Communication
  • Transport and Communication  
  • Land Transport  
    • Road Transport
    • National Highways
    • Rail Transport
    • Water Transport
    • Oceanic Routes
    • Air Transportation
  • Oil and Gases Pipelines  
  • Communication Networks  
    • Personal Communication System
    • Mass Communication System
11 International Trade
  • Concept of International Trade  
    • Export Trade
    • Import Trade
    • Entrepot Trade
  • Changing Pattern of the Composition of India's Exports  
  • Changing Patterns of the Composition of India's Import  
    • Direction of Trade
  • Sea Ports as Gateways of International Trade  
  • Air Routes of International Trade  
12 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
  • Environmental Pollution - Introduction  
    • Bio-degradable pollutants
    • Non bio-degradable pollutants 
    • Water Pollution
    • Air Pollution
    • Noise Pollution
  • Urban Waste Disposal  
  • Rural-urban Migration  
  • Problems of Slums  
  • Land Degradation  

CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus for Chapter 3: Practical Work in Geography

1 Data – Its Source and Compilation
  • What is Data?  
  • Need of Data  
  • Presentation of Data  
  • Sources of Data  
  • Sources of Data - Primary  
    • Personal Observations
    • Interview
    • Questionnaire/Schedule
    • Other Methods
  • Sources of Data - Secondary  
    • Published Sources
    • Unpublished Sources
  • Tabulation and Classification of Data  
  • Data Compilation and Presentation  
    • Absolute Data
    • Percentage/Ratio
    • Index Number
  • Processing of Data  
  • Grouping of Data  
  • Process of Classification  
    • Frequency Distribution
2 Data Processing
  • Measures of Central Tendency  
    • Average 
    • Related Positional Measures - Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles
    • Computations for Related positional measure
    • Geometric mean 
    • Harmonic mean
    • Relationship among the averages 
    • Mean
    • Median
    • Mode
    • Computing Mean from Ungrouped Data
    • Computing Mean from Grouped Data
  • Concept of Median  
    • Computing Median for Ungrouped Data
    • Computing Median for Grouped Data
  • Mode  
    • Computing Mode for Ungrouped Data
  • Comparison of Mean, Median and Mode  
  • Measures of Dispersion  
    • Quartile Deviation
    • Mean deviation
  • Methods of Measuring Dispersion  
    • Range
    • Standard Deviation
    • Coefficient of Variation (CV)
  • Rank Correlation  
    • Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient 
  • Direction of Correlation  
  • Degree of Correlation  
    • Perfect Correlations
    • Other Correlations
  • Method of Calculating Correlation  
    • Spearman’s Rank Correlation
3 Graphical Representation of Data
  • Representation of Data  
  • General Rules for Drawing Graphs, Diagram and Maps  
    • Selection of a Suitable Method
    • Selection of Suitable Scale
    • Design
  • Construction of Diagrams  
    • Line Graph
    • Bar Diagram
    • Multiple Bar Diagram
    • Pie Diagram
    • Calculation of Angles
    • Flow Maps/Chart
    • Thematic Maps
  • Classification of Thematic Maps Based on Method of Construction  
    • Dot Maps
    • Choropleth Map
    • Isopleth Map
4 Use of Computer in Data Processing and Mapping
  • What Can a Computer do?  
  • Hardware Configuration and Software Requirements  
    • Hardware
    • Computer Software
  • Computer Software  
  • Construction of Graphs  
  • Computer Assisted Mapping  
    • Spatial Data
    • Non-spatial Data
    • Sources of Geographical Data
  • Mapping Software and Their Functions  
5 Field Surveys
  • Field Surveys Procedure  
    • Defining the Problem
    • Objectives
    • Scope
    • Tools and Techniques
    • Compilation and Computation
    • Cartographic Applications
    • Presentations
  • Field Surveys: Case Studies  
    • Instructions for the Students
  • Field Study of Poverty: Extent, Determinants and Consequences  
    • The Problem
    • Objectives
    • Coverage
    • Tools and Techniques
    • Compilation and Computation
  • Field Study of Drought: a Study of Belagaum District, Karnataka  
    • Objectives
    • Coverage
    • Tools and Techniques
    • Measurement
6 Spatial Information Technology
  • Spatial Information Technology  
    • What is Spatial Information Technology?
  • Geographical Information System (GIS)  
    • What is Geographical Information System (GIS)?
    • Forms of Geographical Information
  • Advantage of GIS Over Manual Methods  
  • Components of GIS  
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Data
    • People
    • Procedures
  • Spatial Data Formats  
    • Raster Data Format
    • Vector Data Format
  • Sequences of GIS Activities  
    • Spatial Data Input
    • Entering the Attribute Data
    • Data Verification and Editing
    • Geographic Data : Linkages and Matching
    • Spatial Analysis
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