Chemistry Science (English Medium) Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2024-25


CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus - Free PDF Download

CBSE Syllabus 2024-25 Class 12: The CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for the examination year 2024-25 has been released by the Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE. The board will hold the final examination at the end of the year following the annual assessment scheme, which has led to the release of the syllabus. The 2024-25 CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Board Exam will entirely be based on the most recent syllabus. Therefore, students must thoroughly understand the new CBSE syllabus to prepare for their annual exam properly.

The detailed CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus for 2024-25 is below.

Academic year:

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Revised Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry and their Unit wise marks distribution

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Course Structure 2024-25 With Marking Scheme



1 Solid State
  • General Characteristics of Solid State  
  • Amorphous and Crystalline Solids  
    • Classification of solids
    1. Crystalline solids
    2. Amorphous solids
    • The distinction between Crystalline and Amorphous Solids
    • Isomorphous solids and polymorphous solids
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids  
    • Classification of crystalline solids
    1. Molecular solids:
      a) Polar molecular solids
      b) Non-polar molecular solids
      c) Hydrogen-bonded molecular solids
    2. Ionic Solids
    3. Metallic solids
    4. Covalent or Network Solids
    • Structure and properties of diamond, graphite, and fullerene
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells  
    • Unit cell
    • Crystal lattice or space lattice
    • Two-dimensional lattice and unit cell
    • Three-dimensional lattice and unit cell
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells - Primitive and Centred Unit Cells  
    • Primitive Unit Cells
    • Centred Unit Cells
      1) Body-Centred Unit Cells
      2) Face-Centred Unit Cells
      3) End-Centred Unit Cells
    • Bravais lattices
  • Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell  
    • Primitive Cubic Unit Cell
    • Body-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
    • Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
  • Close Packed Structures of Solids  
    • Packing in solids
    • Close Packing in One Dimension
      1) Coordination number
    • Close Packing in Two Dimensions
      1) Square close packing in two dimensions
      2) Hexagonal close packing of spheres in two dimensions
    • Close Packing in Three Dimensions
    • Three-dimensional close-packed structure
    • Stage I - Linear packing in one dimension
    • Stage II - Planar packing in two dimensions
      1) AAAA type, square close-packed structure
      2) ABAB type, hexagonal close-packed structure
    • Stage III - Close packing in three dimensions
      1) AAAA type, simple cubic structure
      2) ABAB type, hexagonal close-packed structure
      3) ABCABC type, cubic close-packed structure
    • Number of voids per atom in hcp and ccp structures
    • Locating tetrahedral and octahedral voids: locating tetrahedral voids, Locating octahedral voids
  • Close Packed Structures - Formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Filled  
  • Packing Efficiency  
    • Packing Efficiency in hcp and ccp Structures  
    • Efficiency of Packing in Body-centred Cubic Structures  
    • Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice  
  • Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions  
    • Calculation of density of unit cell
  • Imperfections in Solids - Introduction  

    point defects and line defects

  • Imperfections in Solids  
    • Types of Point Defects - Stoichiometric Defects  

      Vacancy Defect, Interstitial Defect, Frenkel Defect, interstitial defect, dislocation defect, Schottky Defect

    • Types of Point Defects - Impurity Defects  
    • Types of Point Defects - Non-stoichiometric Defects  

      Metal Excess Defect, Metal Deficiency Defect

  • Electrical Properties - Introduction  
  • Electrical Properties  
    • Conduction of Electricity in Metals  
    • Conduction of Electricity in Semiconductors  
      • Conduction of electricity in semiconductors
      1. Intrinsic semiconductors
      2. Extrinsic semiconductors
        a) Electron rich (or donor) impurities
        b) Electron deficient (or acceptor) impurities
    • Applications of n-type and p-type Semiconductors  
  • Magnetic Properties  
    • Magnetic properties:
    1. Magnetising field
    2. Magnetic permeability
    3. Intensity of magnetisation
    4. Magnetic induction or total magnetic field
    5. Magnetic susceptibility
    • Substances can be classified into five categories:
    1. Paramagnetic
    2. Diamagnetic
    3. Ferromagnetic
    4. Antiferromagnetic
    5. Ferrimagnetic
  • Solid State  
    • Band Theory of Metals  
  • Solid State Numericals  
1 Solutions
  • Introduction of Solution  
  • Types of Solutions  
    1. Gaseous Solutions
    2. Liquid Solutions
    3. Solid Solutions
  • Expressing Concentration of Solutions  
    • Mass percentage (w/w)
    • Volume percentage (V/V)
    • Mass by volume percentage (w/V)
    • Parts per million
    • Mole fraction
    • Molarity
    • Molality
    • Standard solutions and working standards
    • Advantages of using standard solutions
  • Introduction of Solubility  
  • Solubility  
    • Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid  
      • Effect of temperature
      • Effect of pressure
    • Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid  
      • Factors affecting the solubility of gases in liquids
        1) Nature of gas (solute) and liquid (solvent)
        2) Effect of temperature
        3) Effect of pressure
      • Limitations of Henry's law
      • Applications of Henry's law
        1) In the production of carbonated beverages
        2) In scuba diving (deep-sea diving)
        3) At high altitudes
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions - Introduction  
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid  
    • Vapour Pressure of Liquid- Liquid Solutions  
      • Raoult's Law
    • Raoult’s Law as a Special Case of Henry’s Law  
    • Vapour Pressure of Solutions of Solids in Liquids  
  • Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions  
    • Ideal Solutions
    • Non-ideal Solutions
    • Non-ideal solutions - positive deviation from Rauolt's Law
    • Non-ideal solutions - negative deviation from Rauolt's Law
    • Factors responsible for deviation from Raoult’s law
    1. Solute-solvent interactions
    2. Dissociation of solute
    3. Association of solute
    4. Temperature
    5. Pressure
    6. Concentration
  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass - Introduction  
  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass  
    • Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure  
      • Relative lowering of vapour pressure
      • Determination of molar mass of solute from relative lowering of vapour pressure
    • Elevation of Boiling Point  
      • Boiling point
      • Elevation of boiling point
      • Determination of molar mass of solute from elevation of boiling point
    • Depression of Freezing Point  
      • Freezing point
      • Depression of freezing point
      • Determination of molar mass of solute from depression of freezing point
    • Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure  
      • Osmosis
      • Semi-permeable membrane
      • Osmotic pressure
      • Types of Solution: Isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions
      • Osmotic pressure and concentration of the solution
      • Laws of Osmotic pressure
      1. van't Hoff - Boyle's law
      2. van't Hoff- Charles' law
      3. van't Hoff general solution equation
      4. van't Hoff-Avogadro's law
      • Determination of molar mass from osmotic pressure
    • Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification  
  • Abnormal Molar Masses  
    • Abnormal molecular masses
      a) Association of solute particles
      b) Dissociation of solute particles
    • Van't Hoff Factor
    • Significance of van't Hoff factor
      a) Degree of dissociation
      b) Degree of association
  • Solution Numericals  
  • Quantitative Concentration Numericals  
  • Composition of Vapour Phase  
  • Electrochemistry  
    • Kohlrausch's law  


2 Electrochemistry
  • Introduction to Electrochemistry  
  • Electrochemical Cells  
    • Electrochemical reactions
    • Electrodes
    • Types of electrochemical cells
    1. Galvanic cell
    2. Electrolytic cells
  • Galvanic or Voltaic Cells - Introduction  
    • Galvanic or Voltaic cells
    • Reduction half-cell
    • Oxidation half-cell
    • Joining half-cells
    • Anodic oxidation
    • Cathodic reduction
    • Completion of circuit
    • Consumption of Electrodes
    • Salt bridge
    • Cell notation or representation of a galvanic cell
    • Cell electromotive force (e.m.f.)
  • Galvanic Cells - Measurement of Electrode Potential  
    • Reference electrode
    • Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE): Construction, Electrode reactions, Application, Limitations
    • Calomel electrode: Construction, Electrode reactions, Advantages of calomel electrode
  • Nernst Equation - Introduction  
    • Derivation of Nernst equation
    • Applications of Nernst equation
  • Nernst Equation  
    • Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation  
    • Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction  
  • Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions - Introduction  
    • Conductors
    • Difference between Electronic and Electrolytic conduction
    • Non-electrolytes
    • Factors affecting electronic or metallic conduction
    • Factors affecting electrical conductivity of electrolytic solutions
    • Electrolytic conduction (Conductance in electrolytic solutions)
  • Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions  
    • Measurement of the Conductivity of Ionic Solutions  
      • Conductivity cell
      • Cell constant
      • Determination of cell constant
      • Determination of conductivity of the solution
    • Variation of Conductivity and Molar Conductivity with Concentration  
      • Variation of conductivity with concentration
      • Molar conductivity
      • Limiting molar conductivity 
      • Variation of molar conductivity for strong electrolytes
      • Kohlrausch's law of independent migration of ions
      • Variation of molar conductivity for weak electrolytes
      • Applications of Kohlrausch's law
  • Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis - Introduction  
    • Electrolytic cells
    • Process of electrolysis
    • Preferential Discharge Theory
    • Some Examples of Electrolysis
    • Quantitative Aspects of Electrolysis
    • Faraday's laws of electrolysis
      1) Faraday's First Law of Electrolysis
      2) Faraday's Second Law of Electrolysis
  • Applications of Electrolysis  
    • Products of Electrolysis  
  • Batteries  
    • Primary Batteries  
      • Dry cell
      • Mercury cell
    • Secondary Batteries  
      • Lead storage battery (Lead accumulators)
      • Nickel-cadmium (NICAD) cells
  • Fuel Cells  
    • Fuel cells
    • Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell
    • Advantage and disadvantage of fuel cell
  • Concept of Corrosion  
    • Corrosion
    • Corrosion of iron (Rusting)
  • Relation Between Gibbs Energy Change and Emf of a Cell  
    • Gibbs energy change and e.m.f. of a cell
    • Standard cell potential and equilibrium constant
  • Electrochemistry  
    • Lead Accumulator  
  • Faraday’s Law of Induction  
    • Laws of Electromagnetic Induction or Faraday's Laws of Induction
      1) First law
      2) Second Law
3 Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate of a Chemical Reaction  
    • Average rate of a reaction
    • Units of rate of a reaction
    • Instantaneous rate
    • Stoichiometry and rate of a reaction
    • Rate law and rate constant
    • Differences between rate and rate constant of a reaction
  • Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction  
    • Various factors influencing the rate of a chemical reaction
    1. Concentration of reactants
    2. Pressure of gaseous reactants
    3. Temperature of the system
    4. Presence of a catalyst
    • Dependence of Rate on Concentration, temperature, catalyst
    • Rate Expression and Rate Constant/ Rate law and Specific Rate Constant
    • Order of a Reaction
    • Molecularity of a Reaction
  • Integrated Rate Equations  
  • Zero Order Reactions  
    • Integrated rate law for zero order reactions
    • Units of rate constant of zero order reactions
    • Graphical representation of zero order reaction
    • Examples of zero order reactions
  • First Order Reactions  
    • Integrated rate law for first order reactions
    • Units of rate constant for the first order reaction
    • Graphical representation of first order reaction
    • Examples of first order reactions
    • Various forms of the integrated rate law for the first order reactions
  • Half Life Period of a Reaction  
    • Half life of the first order reactions (`t _(1/2)`)
    • Half life and rate constant of the first order reaction
    • Graphical representation of Half life period of first order reaction
    • Half life of zero order reactions
  • Pseudo First Order Reaction  
  • Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction  
    • Activation energy
    • Arrhenius equation
    • Most probable kinetic energy
    • Effect of Catalyst
  • Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions  
    • Collision between reactant molecules
    • Energy requirement - Activation energy
    • Orientation of reactant molecules
  • Effect of Catalyst on the Rate of Reaction  
  • Kinetic Energy of Molecule  
  • Role of Catalyst  
  • Chemical Kinetics  
    • Rate Law and Specific Rate Constant  
4 d-block and f-block Elements
5 Coordination Compounds
5 Surface Chemistry
  • Introduction of Adsorption  
  • Distinction Between Adsorption and Absorption  
  • Adsorption  
    • Mechanism of Adsorption  
    • Adsorption from Solution Phase  
  • Types of Adsorption  
    • Types of adsorption
    1. Physical adsorption (Physisorption or van der Waals' adsorption)
    2. Chemical adsorption (Chemisorption or activated adsorption)
    • Difference between physisorption and chemisorption
  • Adsorption Isotherms (Freundlich and Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm)  
    • Adsorption isotherm
    • Freundlich adsorption isotherm
    • Langmuir adsorption isotherm
  • Applications of Adsorption  
  • Catalysis  
    • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis  
      • Classification of catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
      • Examples of homogeneous catalysis
      • Examples of heterogeneous catalysis
    • Shape-selective Catalysis by Zeolites  
    • Enzyme Catalysis  
      • Enzymes
      • Characteristics of enzymes
      • Mechanism of enzyme catalysis
      • Examples of enzyme catalysed reactions
    • Catalysts in Industry  
  • Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis  
    • Important features of solid catalysts
    1. Catalytic activity
    2. Catalytic selectivity
    3. Shape selective catalysis by zeolites
  • Colloids  
    • Examples of colloids
    • Classification of colloids
    • Preparation of Colloids
    • Purification of colloidal solution
    • Properties of colloidal dispersions
    • Methods to effect coagulation
    • Emulsions
    • Applications of colloids
    • Dispersed phase and dispersion medium
    • True solutions, colloids, and suspensions
    • Types of colloidal systems
  • Classification of Colloids  
    • Classification Based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium  
    • Classification Based on Nature of Interaction Between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium  
      • Lyophilic colloids (solvent loving or solvent attracting)
      • Lyophobic colloids (solvent hating, solvent repelling, or solvent fearing)
      • Distinction between lyophobic and lyophilic colloids
    • Classification Based on Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular and Associated Colloids  
      • Multimolecular colloids,
      • Macromolecular colloids,
      • Associated colloids (Micelles),
      • Mechanism of micelle formation
      • Cleansing action of soaps
  • Preparation of Colloids  
    • Chemical methods
    • Electrical disintegration or Bredig’s Arc method
    • Peptization
  • Purification of Colloidal Solutions  
    • Dialysis
    • Electro-dialysis
    • Ultrafiltration
  • Properties of Colloidal Solutions  
    • Colligative properties
    • Tyndall effect
    • Colour
    • Brownian movement
    • Charge on colloidal particles
    • Electrophoresis
    • Coagulation of lyophilic sols
    • Coagulation or precipitation
    • Methods to effect coagulation
    • Methods to prevent coagulation of colloids (Protection of colloids)
  • Emulsions  
    • Emulsion
    • Types of emulsions
      1) Oil-in-water emulsion (O/W type)
      2) Water-in-oil emulsion (W/O type)
    • Properties of emulsions
    • Deemulsification
  • Colloids Around Us  
    • Colloids in our daily life
    1. Natural phenomena
      a) Blue colour of sky and sea
      b) Fog, mist, and rain
      c) Soils
      d) Delta formation
      e) Food articles 
      f) Blood
    2. Industrial applications
      a) Electrical precipitation of smoke
      b) Purification of drinking water
      c) Colloidal medicines
      d) Photographic plates
      e) Artificial rain
      f) Rubber industry
      g) Tanning
      h) Miscellaneous
6 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Introduction of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  
  • Classification of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  
    • Classification On the Basis of Number of Halogen Atoms
    • Classification on the basis of Compounds Containing sp3 C—X Bond (X = F, Cl, Br, I)
    • Classification on the basis of Compounds Containing sp2 C—X Bond
  • Introduction to Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  
    • Nomenclature  
    • Nature of C-X Bond  
  • Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  
    • Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes:
    1. From Alcohols
    2. From hydrocarbons
      - From alkanes by free radical halogenation
      - From Alkenes - Addition of hydrogen haldies, Addition halogens) 
    3. Halogen exchange (Finkelstein reaction, Swarts reaction)
    • Methods of Preparation of Haloarenes:
    1. From hydrocarbons by electrophilic substitution
    2. From amines by Sandmeyer’s reaction
  • Physical Properties of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes  
    • Melting and boiling points
    • Density
    • Solubility
  • Hydrocarbons: Alkanes  
    • Reactions of Haloalkanes - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions  
      • Mechanism of substitution reactions:
      1. Substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2)
      2. Substitution nucleophilic unimolecular (SN1)
      3. Stereochemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions
      • Plane polarised light and optical activity
      •  Molecular asymmetry, chirality and enantiomers
      • Retention
      • Inversion, retention and racemisation
    • Reactions of Haloalkanes - Elimination Reactions  
    • Reactions of Haloalkanes - Reaction with Metals  
      • Organo-metallic compounds
      • Grignard Reagents
      • Wurtz reaction
    • Reactions of Haloarenes - Nucleophilic Substitution  
    • Reactions of Haloarenes - Electrophilic Substitution Reactions  
    • Reactions of Haloarenes - Reaction with Metals  
      • Wurtz-Fittig reaction
      • Fittig reaction
  • Polyhalogen Compounds  
    1. Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride)
    2. Trichloromethane (Chloroform)
    3. Triiodomethane (Iodoform)
    4. Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride)
    5. Freons
    6. p,p’-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)
    • Environmental effects of polyhalogen compounds
  • Haloalkanes  
    • R-s and D-l Configuration  


  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Numericals  
6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
7 P - Block Elements
  • Concept of Group 15 Elements  
    • Occurrence
    • Electronic Configuration
    • Atomic and Ionic Radii
    • Ionisation Enthalpy
    • Electronegativity
    • Physical Properties and Chemical Properties
  • p-Block elements of Group 15 Elements  
    • Dinitrogen  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Ammonia  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Oxides of Nitrogen  
      • Oxides of Nitrogen
      • Oxoacids of nitrogen
      • Structures of Oxides of Nitrogen
    • Nitric Acid  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Phosphorus - Allotropic Forms  
      • White phosphorus
      • Red phosphorus
      • Black phosphorus
    • Compounds of Phosphorus  
    • Phosphine  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Phosphorus Halides  
      • Phosphorus Trichloride - Preparation, Properties, Uses
      • Phosphorus Pentachloride - Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Oxoacids of Phosphorus  
  • Concept of Group 16 Elements  

    Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Atomic and Ionic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpy, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Electronegativity, Physical Properties and Chemical Properties (Oxidation states and trends in chemical reactivity and Anomalous behaviour of oxygen)

  • P - Block Group 16 Elements  
    • Dioxygen  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Classification of Oxides  
    • Simple Oxides  
    • Ozone  
      • Preparation, properties, structures, and uses
    • Sulphur - Allotropic Forms  
      • Rhombic sulphur (α-sulphur)
      • Monoclinic sulphur (β-sulphur)
    • Compounds of Sulphur  
    • Sulphur Dioxide  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Oxoacids of Sulphur  
      • Structures of oxoacids of sulphur
    • Sulphuric Acid  
      • Preparation, properties, structures, and uses
  • Concept of Group 17 Elements  

    Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Atomic and Ionic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpy, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Electronegativity, Physical Properties and Chemical Properties (Oxidation states and trends in chemical reactivity and Anomalous behaviour of fluorine)

  • Compounds of Halogens  
  • P - Block Group 17 Elements  
    • Chlorine  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Hydrogen Chloride  
      • Preparation, Properties, Uses
    • Oxoacids of Halogens  
      • Oxides and oxoacids of halogens
    • Interhalogen Compounds  
      • Structures of Interhalogen compounds
  • P - Block Group 18 Elements  
    • Concept of Group 18 Elements  

      Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Ionisation Enthalpy, Atomic Radii, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Physical Properties and Chemical Properties (Xenon-fluorine compounds and Xenon-oxygen compounds)

  • P Block Elements  
7 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
8 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Introduction of Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids  
  • Aldehydes and Ketones  
    • Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones  
      • Common names
      • IUPAC names
    • Structure of the Carbonyl Group  
    • Preparation of Aldehydes  
      1. From acyl chloride (acid chloride)
      2. From nitriles and esters
      3. From hydrocarbons
        (i) By oxidation of methylbenzene
        (a) Use of chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2)
        (b) Use of chromic oxide (CrO3)
        (ii) By side chain chlorination followed by hydrolysis
        (iii) By Gatterman – Koch reaction
    • Preparation of Ketones  
      • From acyl chlorides
      • From nitriles
      • From benzene or substituted benzenes
    • Chemical Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones - Nucleophilic Addition Reactions  
      1. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition reactions
      2. Reactivity
      3. Some important examples of nucleophilic addition and nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions
        (a) Addition of hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
        (b) Addition of sodium hydrogensulphite
        (c) Addition of Grignard reagents
        (d) Addition of alcohols
        (e) Addition of ammonia and its derivatives
    • Chemical Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones - Reduction  
      • Reduction to alcohols
      • Reduction to hydrocarbons
        (i) Clemmensen reduction
        (ii) Wolff-Kishner reduction
    • Chemical Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones - Oxidation  
      • Tollens’ test
      • Fehling’s test
      • Oxidation of methyl ketones by haloform reaction
    • Chemical Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones - Reactions Due to α-hydrogen  
      • Acidity of α-hydrogens of aldehydes and ketones
        (i) Aldol condensation 
        (ii) Cross aldol condensation
    • Chemical Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones - Other Reactions  
      • Cannizzaro reaction
      • Electrophilic substitution reaction
  • Nature of Carbonyl Group  
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones  
    1. By oxidation of alcohols
    2. By dehydrogenation of alcohols
    3. From hydrocarbons
      (i) By ozonolysis of alkenes
      (ii) By hydration of alkynes
  • Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones  
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones  
  • Introduction of Carboxylic Acids  
    • Classification of mono and di carboxylic acids with examples.
  • Acids  
    • Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids  
    • Structure of the Carboxyl group  
    • Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids  
      • Oxidation of primary alcohols and aldehydes
      • Oxidation of alkyl benzene
      • From nitriles and amides (hydrolysis)
      • From aryl amines and alkyl halides
      • Carboxylation of Grignard reagent
      • Hydrolysis of acyl chloride and acid anhydride
      • Hydrolysis of esters
    • Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids - Reactions Involving Cleavege of O-H Bond  
      1. Carboxylic acids are distinctly acidic in nature
        a) Action of active metals
        b) Action of alkali (like NaOH or KOH)
        c) Action of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3
      2. Acidic strength of the carboxylic acids
      3. Carboxylic acids are more acidic than phenols
      4. Effect of substituents on the acidity of carboxylic acids
    • Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids - Reactions Involving Cleavege of C-OH Bond  
      • Reactions involving -OH part of the carboxyl group
      1. Formation of acyl chlorides (action of SOCl2, PCl3, or PCl5)
      2. Formation of esters (action of alcohols): Fischer-Speier esterification
      3. Formation of acid anhydride
      4. Formation of amides
    • Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids - Reactions Involving –COOH Group  
      • Reactions involving -COOH group
      1. Partial reduction to alcohols
      2. Formation of hydrocarbons (Decarboxylation)
    • Chemical Reactions of Carboxylic Acids - Substitution Reactions in the Hydrocarbon Part  
      • Reactions due to the alkyl group and/or aryl group present in the carboxylic acid
      1. α-Halogenation
      2. Ring substitution
  • Physical Properties of Carboxylic Acids  
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids  
9 Amines
  • Introduction of Amines  
  • Structure of Amines  
  • Classification of Amines  
    • Classification of amines
    1. Aliphatic amines
    2. Aromatic amines
  • Amines  
    • Nomenclature of Animes  
    • Preparation of Amines  
      • From alkyl halides (by ammonolysis/Hoffmann's ammonolysis method)
      • Gabriel phthalimide synthesis
      • From alkyl cyanides, amides, and nitro compounds
      • From amides (By Hoffmann bromamide degradation)
      • Additional methods for the preparation of amines
    • Chemical Reactions of Amines - Basic Character of Amines  
      • Structure-basicity relationship of amines
        (a) Alkanamines versus ammonia
        (b) Arylamines versus ammonia
    • Chemical Reactions of Amines - Alkylation and Acylation  
      • Alkylation of amines (Hoffmann's exhaustive alkylation)
      • Hoffmann elimination
      • Benzoylation
    • Chemical Reactions of Amines - Carbylamine Reaction  
    • Chemical Reactions of Amines - Reaction with Nitrous Acid  
    • Chemical Reactions of Amines - Reaction with Arylsulphonyl Chloride  
    • Chemical Reactions of Amines - Electrophilic Substitution  
      • Bromination
      • Nitration
      • Sulphonation
    • Uses of Amines  
    • Identification of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines  
      • Action of nitrous acid
      1. Primary amines
      2. Secondary amines
      3. Tertiary amines
      • Hoffmann's carbylamine test (isocyanide test)
      • Hinsberg's test
  • Physical Properties of Amines  
  • Cyanides and Isocyanides  
    • Introduction 
    • alkyl cyanides and alkyl isocyanides
    1. Alkyl cyanides - Preparation, Properties, and reactions
    2. Alkyl isocyanides: Preparation, Properties, and reactions
  • Introduction of Diazonium Salts  
    • Introduction
    • Resonance structure 
    • Method of preparation of Diazonium salts
    • Physical properties 
    • Chemical reactions
    1. Replacement reactions involving loss of nitrogen 
    2. Reactions involving retention of diazo group
  • Diazonium Salts  
    • Method of Preparation of Diazonium Salts  
      • Preparation of diazonium salts by reaction of Aniline and nitrous acid
    • Chemical Reaction of Diazonium Salts - Reactions Involving Displacement of Nitrogen  
      • Replacement by halide or cyanide ion,
        - Sandmeyer reaction
        - Gatterman reaction
      • Replacement by iodide ion
      • Replacement by fluoride ion (Balz-Schiemann reaction or Schiemann reaction)
      • Replacement by H
      • Replacement by hydroxyl group
      • Replacement by –NO2 group
    • Chemical Reaction of Diazonium Salts - Reactions Involving Retention of Diazo Group  
      •  Coupling Reactions
    • Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds  
      • Uses of diazonium salts
  • Physical Properties of Diazonium Salts  
  • Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Numericals  
10 Biomolecules
  • Introduction of Carbohydrates  
  • Classification of Carbohydrates  
    • Classification of carbohydrates
    • On the basis of hydrolysis
    1. Simple carbohydrates
      i) Monosaccharides: Aldoses and Ketoses
    2. Complex carbohydrates
      i) Oligosaccharides: Disaccharides, Trisaccharides, Tetrasaccharides
      ii) Polysaccharides: Homopoly-saccharides and Heteropoly-saccharides
    • On the basis of solubility
    1. Sugars: Reducing and Non-reducing sugars
    2. Non-sugars
  • Carbohydrates  
    • Monosaccahrides  
      •  D-l Configuration
    • Preparation of Glucose  
      • Preparation of glucose
      1. From sucrose or cane sugar (laboratory method)
      2. From starch (commercial method)
    • Structures of Glucose  
      • Structures of glucose
      1. Open chain structure of glucose
      2. Cyclic structure of glucose
      • Haworth projection formulae
    • Structure of Fructose  
      • Fructose
      • Structure of fructose
      • Haworth projection formulae
    • Disaccharides - Sucrose, Maltose and Lactose  
    • Polysaccharides - Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen  
    • Oligosaccharides  
      • Sucrose, lactose, maltose
    • Polysaccharides  

      starch, cellulose, glycogen

  • Importance of Carbohydrates  
  • Introduction of Proteins  
  • Proteins  
    • Amino Acids  
      • Elementary idea of α-amino acids
    • Classification of Amino Acids  
      • Classification of amino acids
      • Based on the number of -NH2 and -COOH groups
      1. Acidic amino acids
      2. Basic amino acids
      3. Neutral amino acids
      • Based on the source
      1. Essential amino acids
      2. Non-essential amino acids
    • Structure of Proteins  
      • Peptide bond and Peptide Linkage
      • Dipeptide, tripeptide
      • Tetrapeptide, Pentapeptide or Hexapeptide
      • Polypeptides
      • Classification of Proteins on the basis of their molecular shape
        (a) Fibrous proteins
        (b) Globular proteins
        - Structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures
      • a-Helix structure, β-Pleated sheets
    • Denaturation of Proteins  
    • Peptide  
    • Lipids and Hormones  
      • Elementary idea
  • Introduction of Enzymes  
  • Mechanism of Enzyme Action  
  • Introduction of Vitamins  
    • Classification and functions of vitamins 
  • Vitamins  
    • Classification of Vitamins  
  • Introduction of Nucleic Acids  
    • Structure of DNA
    • Structure of RNA
    • Differences between DNA and RNA
  • Nucleic Acids  
    • Chemical Composition of Nucleic Acids  
      • Chemical composition of nucleic acids
      1. Nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds (bases)
      2. Sugars
      3. Phosphate group
    • Structure of Nucleic Acids  
    • Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids  
  • Biomolecules Numericals  
  • Hormones  
    • Properties of Hormones
    • Functions of hormones
    • Mechanism of hormone action
    1. Mode of hormone action through membrane receptors
    2.  Mode of action through intracellular receptors
15 Polymers
  • Introduction of Polymers  
  • Polymers  
    • Classification of Polymers Based on Source  

      Natural polymers, Semi-synthetic polymers, Synthetic polymers

    • Classification of Polymers Based on Structure  

      Linear polymers, Branched chain polymers, Cross linked or Network polymers

    • Classification of Polymers Based on Mode of Polymerisation  

      Addition polymers, Condensation polymers

    • Classification of Polymers Based on Molecular Forces  

      Elastomers, Fibres, Thermoplastic polymers, Thermosetting polymers

    • Classification of Polymers Based on Growth Polymerisation  
    • Some Important Polymers  
      • Rubber
      • Polythene
      • Teflon
      • Polyacrylonitrile
      • Polyamide polymers
      • Polyesters
      • Phenol - formaldehyde and related polymers
      • Buna-S rubber
      • Neoprene
      • Viscose rayon
  • Types of Polymerisation Reactions - Addition Polymerisation or Chain Growth Polymerisation  
    • Mechanism of Addition Polymerisation
      1) Free radical mechanism
    • Some Important Addition Polymers
      (a) Polythene
      (i) Low density polythene
      (ii) High density polythene
      (b) Polytetrafluoroethene (Teflon)
      (c) Polyacrylonitrile
  • Types of Polymerisation Reactions - Condensation Polymerisation Or Step Growth Polymerisation  
    • Condensation Polymerisation or Step Growth Polymerisation
    • Some Important Condensation Polymers
      (a) Polyamides: Nylons
      (i) Nylon 6, 6
      (ii) Nylon 6
      (b) Polyesters
      (c) Phenol - formaldehyde polymer (Bakelite and related polymers)
      (d) Melamine - formaldehyde polymer
  • Types of Polymerisation Reactions - Copolymerisation  
  • Types of Polymerisation Reactions - Rubber  
    • Natural rubber (Vulcanisation of rubber),
    • Synthetic rubbers
    1. Buna-S rubber
    2. Buna-N rubber or nitrile rubber
    3. Neoprene rubber
  • Molecular Mass of Polymers  
  • Biodegradable Polymers  
    • Poly β-hydroxybutyrate – co-β-hydroxy valerate (PHBV)
    • Nylon 2– nylon 6
    • Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers
  • Polymers of Commercial Importance  

    Polypropene, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Urea-formaldehyle Resin, Glyptal, Bakelite

  • Polymers Numericals  
16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

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