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Chemistry Class 12 CBSE (Science) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

Academic year:

Syllabus

100 Solid State
  • Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementaryidea).
  • Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
  • Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
200 Solutions
  • Types of solutions,
  • expression of concentration of solutions of solids in Liquids,
  • solubility of gases in liquids,
  • solid solutions,
  • colligative properties
  • relative lowering of vapour pressure,
  • Raoult's law,
  • elevation of boiling point,
  • depression of freezing point,
  • osmotic pressure,
  • determination of molecular masses using colligative properties,
  • abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.
300 Electrochemistry
  • Redox reactions,
  • conductance in electrolytic solutions,
  • specific and molar conductivity,
  • variations of conductivity with concentration,
  • Kohlrausch's Law,
  • electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea),
  • dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells,
  • lead accumulator,
  • EMF of a cell,
  • standard electrode potential,
  • Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,
  • Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
400 Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous),
  • factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst;
  • order and molecularity of a reaction,
  • rate law and specific rate constant,
  • integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions),
  • concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).
  • Activation energy,
  • Arrhenious equation.
500 Surface Chemistry
  • Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity;
  • enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension;
  • lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids;
  • properties of colloids;
  • Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
600 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining;
  • occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
700 P - Block Elements

Group -15 Elements:

  • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties;
  • Nitrogen, preparation properties and ses;
    compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure only) ;
  • Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).

 Group 16 Elements:

  • General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms;
  • compounds of Sulphur: preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements:

  • General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties;
  • compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

 Group 18 Elements:

  • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
800 "D" and "F" Block Elements
  • General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition
    metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii,colour, catalytic property, magnet c properties, interstitial compounds, alloy fonnation, preparation and properties of KzCr0 and KMn02 
  • Lanthanotds - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction andits consequences.
  • Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
900 Coordination Compounds
  • Coordination compounds - Introduction,ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT;
  • structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extract on of metals and biological system).
1000 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
  • Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, subst tution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds on y).
  • Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
1100 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Alcohols:- Nomenclature, methods of preparat on, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
  • Phenols:- Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol,electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
  • Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
1200 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aldehydes and Ketones:- Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.
  • Carboxylic Acids:- Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
    properties; uses.
1300 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
  • Amines:- Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
  • Cyanides and lsocyanides:- will be mentioned at relevant places in text.
  • Dtazontum salts:- Preparation, chemical reactions andimportance in synthet c organic chemistry.
1400 Biomolecules
  • Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configurat on oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
  • Proteins - Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea on y), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementaryidea excluding structure.
  • Vitamins - Classification and functions.
  • Nucleic Acids:- DNA and RNA.
1500 Polymers

Classification 

  • natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers:
  • natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
  • Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
1600 Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
  • Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
  • Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
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