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Chemistry Class 11 PUC Karnataka Science CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 11 Chemistry: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 11. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 11 Chemistry syllabus for the academic year 2022-2023 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus pdf 2022-2023. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry in addition to this.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry. Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

2 Structure of Atom

Discovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals

3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Significance of Classification, brief history of the development of Periodic table, Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. Nomenclature of elements with automic number greater than 100.

4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

5 States of Matter:- Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

6 Chemical Thermodynamics

Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

7 Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

8 Redox Reactions

Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers. applications of redox reactions.

9 Hydrogen

Position of Hydrogen in periodic table, Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure; Hydrogen as fuel.

10 S-block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
  • Group 1 Elements - Alkali Metals 
    • Electronic configuration of group 1 elements
    • Occurrence of group 1 elements
    • Atomic and ionic radii of group 1 elements
    • Ionization Enthalpy
    • Electropositive character
    • Electronegativity
    • Hydration Enthalpy
    • Physical properties of group 1 elements
    1. Nature and appearance
    2. Density
    3. Conductivity
    4. Melting and boiling points
    5. Photoelectric effect
    6. Characteristic flame colour
    7. Atomic and physical properties of group 1 elements
    • Chemical Properties - Reactivity towards air, water, dihydrogen, halogens, Reducing nature, Solutions in liquid ammonia
    • Uses of alkali metals: lithium, sodium, potassium
  • General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 
    • Oxides and hydroxides
    • Halides
    • Salts of Oxo-Acids
  • Anomalous Properties of Lithium 
    • Points of Difference between Lithium and other Alkali Metals
    • Anomalous behaviour of lithium
    • Lithium differs from other alkali metals
    • Diagonal relationship of Li with Mg
    • Similarities between Li and Mg
  • Some Important Compounds of Sodium 
    • Sodium Carbonate (Washing Soda), Na2CO10H2O
    • Sodium Chloride, NaCl
    • Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda), NaOH
    • Sodium Hydrogencarbonate (Baking Soda), NaHCO3
  • Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 
  • Group 2 Elements - Alkaline Earth Metals 
    • General characteristics of alkaline earth metals
    • Electronic configuration of group 2 elements
    • Occurrence of group 2 elements
    • Atomic and ionic radii of group 2 elements
    • Ionization enthalpy of group 2 elements
    • Electropositive character
    • Electronegativity
    • Hydration enthalpy
    • Physical properties of group 2 elements
    1. Nature and appearance
    2. Density
    3. Conductivity
    4. Melting and boiling points
    5. Characteristic flame colour
    6. Atomic and physical properties of group 2 elements
    • Chemical Properties - Reactivity towards air and water, halogens, hydrogen, Reducing nature, Covalent and ionic character, Solubility.
    • Distinctive behavior of beryllium 
    • Solutions in liquid ammonia
    • Reducing nature
    • Reactivity towards acids
    • Uses: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, barium, radium
  • General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 
    • General characteristics of some compounds of the alkaline earth metals
    1. Oxides and Hydroxides
    2. Halides - Structure of BeCl2
    3. Salts of Oxoacids
    • Carbonates of group 2 elements
    • Sulphates of group 2 elements
    • Nitrates of group 2 elements
  • Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 
    • Anomalous behaviour of beryllium
    • Be differs from other alkaline earth metals
    • Diagonal Relationship between Beryllium and Aluminium
    • Reasons for diagonal relationship
    • Similarities between Be and Al
  • Some Important Compounds of Calcium 
    • Calcium oxide or Quick Lime (CaO)
    • Uses of lime
    • Calcium Hydroxide (Slaked lime), Ca(OH)2
    • Uses of slaked lime
    • Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) or limestone
    • Uses of limestone
    • Calcium Sulphate (Plaster of Paris), CaSO4.½ H2O
    • Uses of plaster of Paris
    • Uses of cement
  • Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium 
    • Role of Mg in biological system
    • Role of Ca in biological system

Group I and group 2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

11 Some P-block Elements

General Introduction to p-Block Elements. Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies. General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

12 Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

13 Hydrocarbons
  • Classification of Hydrocarbons 
    • Classification of hydrocarbons
    1. Saturated hydrocarbons
      a) Straight chain alkanes
      b) Branched-chain alkanes
    2. Unsaturated hydrocarbons
      a) Alkenes
      b) Alkynes
    3. Aromatic hydrocarbons
      a) Benzenoids
      b) Non-benzenoids
  • Alkanes - Introduction 
    • Alkanes (Paraffins)
    • General formula
    • Occurrence
    • Structure of alkanes
    • Classification
    • Uses of alkanes
  • Alkanes 
    • Nomenclature and Isomerism 
      • Nomenclature of alkanes
      • Common system
      • IUPAC system
      • IUPAC names of some straight-chain alkanes
      • IUPAC names of some alkyl groups
      • Common and IUPAC names of some alkanes
      • IUP AC naming of cycloalkanes
      • Isomerism of alkanes
    • Preparation of Alkanes from Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Alkyl Halides and Carboxylic Acids 
      • Methods of preparation of alkanes
      • From unsaturated hydrocarbons (By catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes and alkynes)
      1. From alkenes
      2. From alkynes
      • From alkyl halides (Wurtz reaction)
      • From alkyl halides (Corey-House reaction)
      • Reduction of alkyl halides
      • By the use of Grignard reagent
      • Decarboxylation reaction
      • From carboxylic acids by electrolysis (Kolbe's electrolytic method)
      • Reduction of carboxylic acids
    • Conformations (Ethane) 
      • Conformations
      • Conformations of ethane: Eclipsed and Staggered conformation 
      • Representation: Sawhorse and Newman projections
      • Relative stabilities of the conformations of ethane
  • Physical Properties of Alkanes 
    • Physical properties of alkanes
    1. Nature
    2. Boiling point
    3. Melting point
    4. Solubility
    5. Density
  • Chemical Properties of Alkanes 
    • Chemical properties of alkanes
    1. Substitution reactions - Halogenation, Nitration, Sulphonation
    2. Combustion of alkanes (oxidation)
    3. Controlled oxidation
    4. Isomerisation
    5. Aromatization
    6. Reaction with steam
    7. Pyrolysis
  • Alkenes - Introduction 
    • Alkenes
    • General formula
    • Occurrence
  • Alkenes 
    • Nomenclature 
      • Nomenclature of alkenes
      • Common names
      • IUPAC nomenclature
      • The common and IUPAC names of some alkenes
  • Isomerism 
    • Structural isomerism
    1. Chain isomerism
    2. Position isomerism
    3. Functional group isomerism
    4. Metamerism
    5. Tautomerism
    • Stereoisomerism
    • Geometrical isomerism/Cis-trans isomerism
    • Optical isomerism: enantiomers, dextrorotatory, laevorotatory, diastereomers, racemic mixture/ racemate, resolution.
  • Physical Properties of Alkenes 
  • Chemical Properties of Alkenes 
    • Chemical properties of alkenes
    1. Addition reactions: Addition of hydrogen (catalytic hydrogenation), Addition of halogens, Addition of hydrogen halides, Markovnikov's rule, Anti-Markovnikov's rule or Peroxide effect, Oxymercuration demercuration (Indirect hydration of alkenes), Addition of sulphuric acid, Addition of ozone (ozonolysis)
    2. Mechanism of electrophilic reaction
    3. Oxidation reactions: Combustion, Hydroboration-oxidation, Oxidation with potassium permanganate (alkaline), Oxidation with acidic or hot potassium permanganate or potassium dichromate, Catalytic oxidation/ Epoxidation
    4. Polymerization reaction
    5. Uses of alkenes
  • Alkynes - Introduction 
  • Alkynes 
    • Nomenclature and Isomerism 
      • Nomenclature of alkynes
      • Common system
      • Derived system
      • IUPAC system
      • Common names and IUPAC names of some of the alkynes
      • Isomerism in alkynes
      • Chain isomerism
      • Position isomerism
      • Functional isomerism
      • Ring chain isomerism
    • Preparation of Alkynes from Calcium Carbide and Vicinal Dihalides 
      • Methods of preparation of alkynes
      1. Action of water on calcium carbide: Industrial preparation of acetylene
      2. By dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihalides or geminal dihalides: From vicinal dihalide, From geminal dihalide, Double dehydrohalogenation
      3. By the action of zinc on tetrahalogen derivatives of alkanes (dehalogenation)
      4. Kolbe's electrolysis reaction
      5. By dehalogenation of haloform
      6. Berthelot's synthesis
      7. Synthesis of higher alkynes
  • Physical Properties of Alkynes 
    • Physical properties of alkynes
    1. Nature
    2. Solubility
    3. Melting point and Boiling point
  • Chemical Properties of Alkynes 
    • Acidic character of alkyne
    • Formation of alkali metal ethynides (acetylides)
    • Formation of heavy metal ethynides (acetylides)
    • Formation of alkynyl Grignard reagents
    • Addition reactions
    • Addition of hydrogen (catalytic hydrogenation or reduction of alkynes)
    • Addition of halogens (anti-addition): Action of chlorine, Action of bromine
    • Addition of halogen acids (hydrogen halides)
    • Addition of water (acid-catalyzed hydration of alkynes)
    • Oxidation reactions
    • Combustion
    • Oxidation with alkaline potassium permanganate (test for unsaturation)
    • Oxidative hydroboration
    • Ozonolysis reactions
    • Polymerization reactions: Linear and Cyclic polymerization
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Introduction 
    • Aromatic hydrocarbons
    • Classification of aromatic hydrocarbons
      1) Benzenoid compounds
      2) Non-benzenoid compounds
    • Main part of aromatic compound
      a) Nucleus
      b) Side chain
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbons 
    • Structure of Benzene 
      • Benzene
      • Structure of benzene
      1. Molecular formula
      2. Cyclic structure
      3. Evidence for cyclic structure
      • Resonance and stability of benzene
    • Preparation of Benzene 
      • Preparation of Benzene
      1. From acetylene/ethyne (trimerization)
      2. Decarboxylation of aromatic compounds (Laboratory method)
      3. Reduction of phenol
    • Mechanism of Electrophilic Substitution Reactions 
      • Mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions
      1. Generation of the eletrophile
      2. Formation of carbocation intermediate
      3. Removal of proton from the carbocation intermediate
      • Addition reactions - Combustion
  • Physical Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 
  • Chemical Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 
  • Carcinogenicity and Toxicity 

Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

14 Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

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