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Biology Class 12 Science (English Medium) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 12 Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2023-2024 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12 Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus pdf 2023-2024. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12 Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:
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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Reproduction

1 Reproduction in Organisms
2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
3 Human Reproduction
4 Reproductive Health

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Genetics and Evolution

1 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
2 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
  • Structure of DNA and RNA;
  • DNA packaging;
  • DNA replication; Central dogma;
  • transcription, genetic code, translation;
  • gene expression and regulation - lac operon;
  • genome and human and rice genome projects;
  • DNA fingerprinting.
3 Evolution
  • Origin of life;
  • biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences);
  • Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution;
  • mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection;
  • Gene flow and genetic drift;
  • Hardy - Weinberg's principle;
  • adaptive radiation;
  • human evolution.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Biology and Human Welfare

1 Human Health and Diseases
  • Pathogens;
  • parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control;
  • Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS;
  • Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.
2 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Introduction of Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 
  • Animal Husbandry (Livestock) 
    • Animal Husbandry
    • Role of Animal Husbandry in Human Welfare
    • Advantages of Animal Husbandry
    • Management of farms and farm animals
    • Dairy Farming 
      • Dairy farm management
      • Composition of Cattle Feed
      • Feed Management
      • Improvement of Livestock Development in India
      • Diseases
      • Uses of Dairy Farming
    • Poultry Farming 
      • Poultry Farming
      • Poultry Feeding
      • Poultry Disease
      • Poultry product
      • Uses of Poultry Farming
      • Poultry management
    • Pisciculture (Fish Farming) 
      • Pisciculture
      • Types of Fish Culture
      • Types of Ponds for Fish Culture
      • Cultivable Food Fishes
      • Nutritional Value of Fishes
  • Animal Breeding 
  • Plant Breeding 
    • Plant breeding
    1. Hybridization and its technique
      - Steps of Hybridization technique
      - Indian Hybrid Crops 
    2. Mutation Breeding
    • Main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop
      (i) Collection of variability
      (ii) Evaluation and selection of parents
      (iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents
      (iv) Selection and testing of superior recombinants
      (v) Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
    • Gross Revolution: Wheat and Rice, Sugar cane, Millets
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
      ⇒ Methods of breeding for disease resistance
      ⇒ Mutation
    • Plant Breeding for Developing a Resistance to Insect Pest
    • Heterosis and inbreeding depression
    • Plant Breeding for improved food quality - Biofortification
  • Single Cell Protein (SCP) 
    • Single cell protein (SCP)
    • Advantages of Single-Cell Protein
  • Tissue Culture 
    • Tissue Culture
    • Micropropagation (Clonal Propagation)
    • Advantages of microporpagation
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production (Questions) 
  • Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
3 Microbes in Human Welfare
  • In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
  • Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Biotechnology and Its Applications

1 Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology 
    • Restriction Enzymes 
      • Restriction endonuclease
      • Recognition sequence, Nucleases
      • Exonucleases and Endonucleases
      • Palindromic nucleotide sequences
      • Separation and isolation of DNA fragments
    • Cloning Vectors 
      • Cloning Vector
      • Features that are required to facilitate cloning into a vector
        (i) Origin of replication (ori)
        (ii) Selectable marker
        (iii) Cloning sites
        ⇒ Two processes for selection of recombinants over non-recombinants
        (A) Inactivation of antibiotic resistance
        (B) In presence of chromogenic substrate
        (iv) Vectors for cloning genes in plants and animals
  • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology 
    • Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA)
    • Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations
    • Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR
    • Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host Cell/Organism
    • Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product
    • Downstream Processing
  • Process and Principles of Biotechnology 
    • Technique of gene cloning and rDNA technology 
    • Tools and techniques for gene cloning/ rDNA technology
    1. Different instruments (devices) 
      - Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
      - Mechanism of PCR
    2. Biological tools
      - Enzymes 
      - Cloning vectors
      - Competent host
    • Genetic Engineering
    • Bioprocess Engineering
  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
2 Biotechnology and Its Application
  • Introduction of Biotechnology and Its Application 
  • Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture 
    • In agriculture: for production of crops tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salt, heat); pest-resistant crops (Bt-crops, RNAi with reference to Meloidogyne incognita); biofortification (golden rice, wheat – Atlas 66, maize hybrids, iron fortified rice)
    • Genetically Modified Organisms - BT Crops
  • Biotechnological Applications in Medicine 
    • In medicine: Genetically Engineered Insulin, Gene therapy - with reference to the treatment of SCID, molecular diagnosis by PCR, ELISA and use of DNA/RNA probe.
  • Transgenic Animals 
    • Transgenic animals for bioactive products like alpha-1-antitrypsin for emphysema, alpha-lactalbumin
    1. Normal physiology and development
    2. Study of disease
    3. Biological products
    4. Vaccine safety
    5. Chemical safety testing
  • Ethical Issues 
    • Bio Piracy and Patents
    • GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee)
    • Biopiracy
    • Patents
    • Cyber Crime
    • Software Piracy
    • Hacking
    • Cracking
  • Stem Cell Technology 
  • Biosafety Issues 
    • Vaccine safety testing
    • Chemical safety testing
    • Study of disease
  • Commercial Applications of Biotechnology 
    1. Crop Biotechnology
      a) Hybrid Seeds
      b) Genetically Modified Crops - Bt Cotton, Bt Brinjal, Golden Rice, Herbicide tolerant plants
      c) Biofertilizers
    2. Animal Husbandry
    3. Human Health
      a) Vaccines and Vaccination - Edible Vaccines
      b) Treatment
      c) Interferon
      d) Gene therapy
      e) Cloning - Reproductive cloning, Therapeutic cloning
    4. Industrial Products / White Biotechnology
    5. Environment and Biotechnology
    6. Food Biotechnology
    7. DNA fingerprinting
  • Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture:
  • Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy;
  • genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals;
  • biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Ecology and Environment

1 Organisms and Populations
  • Organisms and environment:
  • Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations;
  • population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;
  • population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
2 Ecosystem
  • Introduction and Types of Ecosystem 
    • Definition of stenothermal, Eurythermal, stenohaline and euryhaline), responses to abiotic factors (regulate, conform, migrate, suspend). Allen’s rule.
  • Ecosystem - Structure and Function 
    • Ecosystems
    • Components of the environment - Abiotic and biotic, Productivity, Decomposition, Energy flow, Nutrient cycling
    • The function of the Ecosystem:
    1. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Definition of PAR, 10% Law, standing crop and standing state.
    2. Productivity of an ecosystem
    3. Concept of trophic level in an ecosystem
    4. Energy flow
    5. Food chain
    6. Food Web
    7. Ecological pyramids
    8. Decomposition
    9. Biogeochemical cycle (Nutrient cycle)
    10. Types of ecosystem
    11. Ecosystem services ( Benefits)
    12. Ecosystem Management
  • Productivity 
    • Primary production
    • Productivity
    • Types of productivity
    1. Primary productivity
      1) Gross primary productivity (GPP)
      2) Net-primary productivity (NPP)
    2. Secondary productivity
  • Decomposition 
    • Decomposition
    • Detritus
    • Steps in Decomposition
      (i) Fragmentation
      (ii) Leaching
      (iii) Catabolism
      (iv) Humification
      (v) Mineralisation
    • Factors affecting the rate of decomposition
  • Energy Flow in an Ecosystem 
    • Food Chain
      a) Grazing food chain (GFC)
      b) Detritus Food Chain (DFC)
    • Food Web
    • Trophic level
      a) Producers
      b) Herbivores (Primary consumer)
      c) Carnivores (Secondary consumer)
      d) Top carnivores (Tertiary consumer)
  • Ecological Pyramids 
    • Ecological Pyramids
      (i) Pyramid of number
      (ii) Pyramid of biomass
      ⇒ The Pyramid of biomass in terrestrial ecosystem
      ⇒ Pyramid of biomass in sea
      (iii) Pyramid of energy
    • Limitations of ecological pyramids
  • Ecological Succession 
    • Ecological succession
    • Classification of ecological succession
      (i) Primary Succession
      (ii) Secondary Succession
    • Succession of Plants
    • Kinds of plant succession
      (i) Hydrarch Succession
      (ii) Xerarch Succession
    • Definition of a climax community, ecological succession, sere, Pioneer species
  • Nutrient Cycling 
    • Nutrient Cycles
    • Types of Nutrient cycles
    1. Carbon Cycle 
    2. Phosphorus Cycle 
  • Ecosystem Services 
    • Ecological services and their cost
    1. Carbon fixation
    2. Pollination
    3. Seed dispersal
    4. Oxygen release
  • Ecosystems Patterns 
  • Ecosystem 
  • Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition;
  • energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy;
  • nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous);
  • ecological succession;
  • ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
3 Biodiversity and Its Conservation
  • Biodiversity 
    • Biodiversity
    • Type of biodiversity
      (i) Genetic diversity
      (ii) Species diversity
      (iii) Ecosystem diversity
    • Global biodiversity and a proportionate number of species of major taxa of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates
  • Patterns of Biodiversity 
    • Latitudinal and altitudinal gradients:
      a) Speciation
      b) Tropical environments
      c) Availability of Solar Energy
    • Species-Area relationships
  • Loss of Biodiversity 
    • Loss of Biodiversity
    • Causes of Biodiversity losses
      (i) Habitat loss and fragmentation
      (ii) Overexploitation
      (iii) Alien species invasions
      (iv) Co-extinctions
    • Why to conserve Diversity?
    • How do we conserve biodiversity?
    • The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has classified the threatened species of plants and animals into three categories for the purpose of their conservation.
    1. Endangered Species
    2. Vulnerable Species
    3. Rare Species
  • Conservation of Biodiversity 
    • Why should we conserve Biodiversity?
      (i) Narrowly utilitarian argument
      (ii) Broadly utilitarian argument
      (iii) Ethical argument
    • How do we conserve Biodiversity?
      (i) In-situ methods: Biodiversity Hotspots and Sacred Groves
      (ii) Ex-situ Conservation - Zoological parks, Botanical parks, Wildlife Safari parks
  • Endangered Organisms 
  • Importance of Biodiversity 
    • Ecological Role of Biodiversity
    • Economic Role of Biodiversity
    • Scientific Role of Biodiversity
    • Rivet Popper hypothesis
  • Extinction 
  • Red Data Book 
    • Red data book
    • Categories in Red Data Book
      (1) Extinct
      (2) Extinct in the wild
      (3) Critically Endangered
      (4) Endangered
      (5) Vulnerable
      (6) Near Threatened
      (7) Least Concern
      (8) Data Deficient
      (9) Not Evaluated
  • Biodiversity and Its Conservation (Questions) 
    • In-situ Conservation 
    • Protected Areas
    • National Parks (NP)
    • Wild Life Sanctuaries (WLS)
    • Biosphere Reserve (BR)
    • Sacred Groves
    • Ex-Situ Conservation
    • Offsite Collections
    • Gene Banks
  • Concept of biodiversity;
  • patterns of biodiversity;
  • importance of biodiversity;
  • loss of biodiversity;
  • biodiversity conservation;
  • hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
4 Environmental Issues
  • Air pollution and its control;
  • water pollution andits control;
  • agrochemicals and their effects;
  • solid waste management;
  • radioactive waste management;
  • greenhouse effect and climate change;
  • ozone layer depletion; deforestation;
  • any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).

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