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Biology Class 12 CBSE (Science) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 12 Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2021-2022 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12 Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus pdf 2021-2022. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12 Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:
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C Reproduction
101 Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species;
  • modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction;
  • asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation;
  • vegetative propagation in plants.
102 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes;
  • pollination - types, agencies and examples;
  • outbreeding devices;
  • pollen-pistil interaction;
  • double fertilization;
  • post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit;
  • special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
  • Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
103 Human Reproduction
  • Male and female reproductive systems;
  • microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
  • gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis;
  • menstrual cycle;
  • fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation;
  • pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea);
  • parturition (elementary idea);
  • lactation (elementary idea).
104 Reproductive Health
  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs);
  • birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical terminat on of pregnancy (MTP);
  • amniocentesis;
    • infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
CC Genetics and Evolution
201 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance;
  • deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;
  • elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance;
  • chromosomes and genes;
  • Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee;
  • linkage and crossing over;
  • sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness;
  • Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disordersin humans;
  • Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

202 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
  • Structure of DNA and RNA;
  • DNA packaging;
  • DNA replication; Central dogma;
  • transcription, genetic code, translation;
  • gene expression and regulation - lac operon;
  • genome and human and rice genome projects;
  • DNA fingerprinting.
203 Evolution
  • Origin of life;
  • biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences);
  • Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution;
  • mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection;
  • Gene flow and genetic drift;
  • Hardy - Weinberg's principle;
  • adaptive radiation;
  • human evolution.
CCC Biology and Human Welfare
301 Human Health and Diseases
  • Pathogens;
  • parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control;
  • Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS;
  • Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.
302 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
303 Microbes in Human Welfare
  • In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
  • Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
CD Biotechnology and Its Applications
401 Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
402 Biotechnology and Its Application
  • Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture:
  • Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy;
  • genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals;
  • biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.
D Ecology and Environment
501 Organisms and Populations
  • Organisms and environment:
  • Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations;
  • population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;
  • population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
502 Ecosystem
  • Introduction and Types of Ecosystem 
  • Ecosystem – Structure and Function 
    • Ecosystems Components
    • Productivity, Decomposition, Energy flow, Nutrient cycling
    • Function of Ecosystem
    1. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)
    2. Productivity of an ecosystem
    3. Concept of trophic level in an ecosystem
    4. Energy flow
    5. Food chain
    6. Food Web
    7. Ecological pyramids
    8. Decomposition
    9. Biogeochemical cycle (Nutrient cycle)
    10. Types of ecosystem
    11. Ecosystem services ( Benefits)
    12. Ecosystem Management
  • Productivity 
    • Primary production, Gross primary productivity,net primary productivity, Secondary productivity
  • Decomposition 
    • Detritivores, fragmentation, Humification, mineralisation
  • Energy Flow 
    • Energy Flow and Food Chains
    • Various types of food chains
    • photosynthetically active radiation, producers, consumers, herbivores,primary carnivores,secondary carnivores
  • Ecological Pyramids 

    Pyramids of Number, Biomass, Energy

  • Ecological Succession 
    • Introduction of Ecological Succession
    • Succession of Plants
  • Nutrient Cycling 
    • Nutrient Cycling - Gaseous and Sedimentary Cycle, Carbon and Phosphorus Cycle
    • Ecosystem – Carbon Cycle
    • Ecosystem – Phosphorus Cycle
  • Ecosystem Services 
    • Ecological Services - Carbon Fixation, Pollination, Seed Dispersal and Oxygen Release
  • Ecosystems Patterns 
  • Ecosystem (Questions) 
  • Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition;
  • energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy;
  • nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous);
  • ecological succession;
  • ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
503 Biodiversity and Its Conservation
  • Concept of biodiversity;
  • patterns of biodiversity;
  • importance of biodiversity;
  • loss of biodiversity;
  • biodiversity conservation;
  • hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
504 Environmental Issues
  • Air pollution and its control;
  • water pollution andits control;
  • agrochemicals and their effects;
  • solid waste management;
  • radioactive waste management;
  • greenhouse effect and climate change;
  • ozone layer depletion; deforestation;
  • any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
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