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Biology Class 12 PUC Karnataka Science CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 12 Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 12. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2021-2022 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 12 Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus pdf 2021-2022. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 12 Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Reproduction

1 Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species;
  • modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction;
  • asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation;
  • vegetative propagation in plants.
2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes;
  • pollination - types, agencies and examples;
  • outbreeding devices;
  • pollen-pistil interaction;
  • double fertilization;
  • post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit;
  • special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
  • Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
3 Human Reproduction
  • Male and female reproductive systems;
  • microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
  • gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis;
  • menstrual cycle;
  • fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation;
  • pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea);
  • parturition (elementary idea);
  • lactation (elementary idea).
4 Reproductive Health
  • Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs);
  • birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical terminat on of pregnancy (MTP);
  • amniocentesis;
    • infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Genetics and Evolution

1 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance;
  • deviations from Mendelism - incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;
  • elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance;
  • chromosomes and genes;
  • Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee;
  • linkage and crossing over;
  • sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness;
  • Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disordersin humans;
  • Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

2 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
  • Structure of DNA and RNA;
  • DNA packaging;
  • DNA replication; Central dogma;
  • transcription, genetic code, translation;
  • gene expression and regulation - lac operon;
  • genome and human and rice genome projects;
  • DNA fingerprinting.
3 Evolution
  • Origin of life;
  • biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences);
  • Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution;
  • mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection;
  • Gene flow and genetic drift;
  • Hardy - Weinberg's principle;
  • adaptive radiation;
  • human evolution.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Biology and Human Welfare

1 Human Health and Diseases
  • Pathogens;
  • parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control;
  • Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS;
  • Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.
2 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
3 Microbes in Human Welfare
  • In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
  • Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Biotechnology and Its Applications

1 Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
  • Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
2 Biotechnology and Its Application
  • Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture:
  • Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy;
  • genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals;
  • biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus for Ecology and Environment

1 Organisms and Populations
  • Organisms and environment:
  • Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations;
  • population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;
  • population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
2 Ecosystem
  • Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition;
  • energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy;
  • nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous);
  • ecological succession;
  • ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
3 Biodiversity and Its Conservation
  • Biodiversity 
  • Patterns of Biodiversity 
    1. Latitudinal and altitudinal gradients 
    2. Species-Area relationships 
    • Importance of species diversity to the ecosystem
  • Loss of Biodiversity 
    • Loss of Biodiversity
    • Causes of Biodiversity losses
    • Why to conserve Diversity?
    • How do we conserve biodiversity?
    • The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) has classified the threatened species of plants and animals into three categories for the purpose of their conservation.
    1. Endangered Species
    2. Vulnerable Species
    3. Rare Species
  • Conservation of Biodiversity 
    • In-situ methods - protected areas: biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, sacred groves; ex-situ methods - captive breeding, zoo, botanical gardens, cryopreservation, wild life safari, seed banks, tissue culture. Definitions and examples of each of the above.
    • Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity - narrowly utilitarian, broadly utilitarian, ethical argument
    • How do we conserve Biodiversity - In situ conservation, Ex situ Conservation
    • Hotspots
    • National Parks
    • Sanctuaries and Ramsar Sites
  • Endangered Organisms 
  • Importance of Biodiversity 
    • Ecological Role of Biodiversity
    • Economic Role of Biodiversity
    • Scientific Role of Biodiversity
  • Extinction 
  • Red Data Book 
  • Biodiversity and Its Conservation (Questions) 
    • In-situ Conservation 
    • Protected Areas
    • National Parks (NP)
    • Wild Life Sanctuaries (WLS)
    • Biosphere Reserve (BR)
    • Sacred Groves
    • Ex-Situ Conservation
    • Offsite Collections
    • Gene Banks
  • Concept of biodiversity;
  • patterns of biodiversity;
  • importance of biodiversity;
  • loss of biodiversity;
  • biodiversity conservation;
  • hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
4 Environmental Issues
  • Air pollution and its control;
  • water pollution andits control;
  • agrochemicals and their effects;
  • solid waste management;
  • radioactive waste management;
  • greenhouse effect and climate change;
  • ozone layer depletion; deforestation;
  • any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
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