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Biology Class 11 CBSE (Science) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 11 Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 11. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 11 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2021-2022 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 11 Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus pdf 2021-2022. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 11 Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

100 The Living World
  • What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
200 Biological Classification
  • Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
300 Plant Kingdom
  • Introduction of Plant Kingdom 
    • natural classification systems, phylogenetic classification systems
  • Concept of Algae 
    • characteristics (morphology, common name, major pigments, stored food, composition of cell wall, flagellar number and position of insertion, habitat, mode of sexual reproduction – isogamous, anisogamous and oogamous) and examples of Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae; Economic importance of algae
    • zoospores, isogamous, anisogamous, oogamous, algin, carrageen,The algae are divided into three main classes: Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae
    • Chlorophyceae - green algae
    • Phaeophyceae - brown algae
    • Rhodophyceae - red algae
  • Concept of Bryophyta 
    • general characteristics, distinctive features of liverworts and mosses; graphic outline of life cycle of Funaria with reference to alternation of generations.
    • Economic Importance of Bryophytes
    • Introduction - gametophyte, antheridium, antherozoids, sporophyte,he bryophytes are divided
    • Liverworts - gemmae (sing. gemma). Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds
    • Mosses - protonema,leafy stage
  • Pteridophyta 
    • characteristics; classification into classes:- psilopsida (Psilotum), lycopsida (Selaginella, Lycopodium), sphenopsida (Equisetum) and pteropsida (Dryopteris, Pteris and Adiantum). Graphic outline of life cycle of a typical pteridophyte (fern). Definition of homospory and heterospory with relevant examples. Economic importance.
    • sporophylls,prothallus,homosporous,heterosporous,seed habit
  • Gymnosperms 
    • Naked seed producing Plants
    • general characteristics and graphic outline of life cycle of a typical gymnosperm (Pinus).
    • Economic importance.
    • mycorrhiza,Gymnosperms:(a) Cycas(b) Pinus (c) Ginkgo
  • Angiosperms 
    • Classification Upto Class, Characteristic Features and Examples
    • flowers, dicotyledons, monocotyledons,double fertilisation
  • Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations 
    • Comparison of life cycle patterns of different plant groups (haplontic, diplontic and haplo-diplontic)
  • Classification System - Artificial and Natural 
  • Phylogenetic Classification System 
  • Sub Classification of Plantae 
  • Phanerogams 
  • Salient features and classification of plants into major groups - Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.
400 Animal Kingdom
  • Introduction of Animal Kingdom 

    Salient Features and Classification of Animals

  • Basis of Classification 
    • Levels of organisation
    1. Cellular level of organisation
    2. Tissue level of organisation
    3. Organ system level of organisation
    • Diploblastic and Triploblastic organisation
    • Patterns of symmetry
    • Coelom
    • Segmentation and Notochord
  • Classification of Animals (Non-chordata) 
    • five distinguishing characters with two examples of Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda (Aschelminthes), Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata
    • Phylum – Porifera - Examples of Porifera : (a) Sycon (b) Euspongia (c) Spongilla
    • Phylum – Coelenterata (Cnidaria) - Examples of Coelenterata indicating outline of their body form : (a) Aurelia (Medusa) (b) Adamsia (Polyp)
    • Phylum – Ctenophora - sea walnuts or comb jellies
    • Phylum – Platyhelminthes -  Tape worm and Liver fluke
    • Phylum – Aschelminthes - Aschelminthes– Roundworm
    • Phylum – Annelida -  Nereis  and Hirudinaria
    • Phylum – Arthropoda - Locust, Butterfly, Scorpion, Prawn
    • Phylum – Mollusca - Pila, Octopus
    • Phylum – Echinodermata - Asterias, Ophiura
    • Phylum – Hemichordata - Balanoglossus and Saccoglossus
  • Classification of Animals - Phylum – Chordata 
    • sub-classification of Chordata with reference to notochord - sub phyla Urochordata, Cephalochordata. Vertebrata (classes – cyclostomata, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and mammalia) – three distinguishing characters with two examples of each).
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Cyclostomata :- jawless vertebrate - Petromyzon
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Chondrichthyes :-  Scoliodon and Pristis
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Osteichthyes :-Examples of Bony fishes : (a) Hippocampus (b) Catla
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Amphibia :- Salamandra and Rana
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Reptilia :-  Chameleon, Crocodilus, Chelone, Naja
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Aves :- Neophron, Struthio, Psittacula, Pavo
    • Phylum – Chordata-Class – Mammalia :- Ornithorhynchus, Macropus, Pteropus, Balaenoptera
  • Animal Construction 

    Animal construction :- body plan (cell aggregate plan, blind-sac plan and tube-within-tube plan), symmetry (spherical, radial and bilateral symmetry), coelom development (diploblastic and triploblastic organisation in animals, acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate and haemocoelomate), segmentation

  • Animal Kingdom (Questions) 
  • Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at Least two examples of each category).
500 Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Morphology and modifications:- Tissues
600 Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).
700 Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).
800 Cell - The Unit of Life
  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life:- Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
900 Biomolecules
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.
1000 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
1100 Transport in Plants
  • Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, lmbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water-Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.
1200 Mineral Nutrition
  • Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
1300 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
1400 Respiration in Plants
  • Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations · number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
1500 Plant Growth and Development
  • Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.
1600 Digestion and Absorption (Part B)
  • Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

1700 Breating and Exchange of Gases (Part B)
  • Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration · asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

1800 Body Fluids and Circulation (Part A)
  • Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

1900 Excretory Products and Their Elimination (Part B)
  • Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

2000 Locomotion and Movement (Part B)
  • Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

2100 Neural Control and Coordination (Part B)
  • Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

2200 Chemical Coordination and Integration (Part A)
  • Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease.
  • Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

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