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Biology Class 11 Science (English Medium) CBSE Topics and Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus For Class 11 Biology: Knowing the Syllabus is very important for the students of Class 11. Shaalaa has also provided a list of topics that every student needs to understand.

The CBSE Class 11 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2023-2024 is based on the Board's guidelines. Students should read the Class 11 Biology Syllabus to learn about the subject's subjects and subtopics.

Students will discover the unit names, chapters under each unit, and subtopics under each chapter in the CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus pdf 2023-2024. They will also receive a complete practical syllabus for Class 11 Biology in addition to this.

Academic year:
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Syllabus

1 The Living World
  • What is ‘Living’? 
    • What is ‘Living’?
    • Characteristics of living organisms
    1. Growth
    2. Reproduction
    3. Cellular structure
    4. Response to stimuli (Consciousness)
    5. Homeostasis
    6. Metabolism
    • Difference  between anabolism and catabolism
  • Diversity in the Living World 
    • Diversity in the Living World
    • Biodiversity
    • Types of Biodiversity
    1. Genetic Biodiversity
    2. Species Biodiversity
    3. Ecological Biodiversity
  • Diversity in the Living World 
    • Biodiversity
    • Identification
    • Nomenclature - Binomial Nomenclature
    • Classification - Taxonomy and Systematics
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy of Living Organisms: Unit of Classification 
    • Taxonomic Hierarchy of Living Organisms
    1. Species
    2. Genus
    3. Family
    4. Order
    5. Class
    6. Phylum
    7. Kingdom
  • Taxonomical Aids 
    • Taxonomical Aids
    • Usage of Taxonomical Aids
    1. Herbarium
    2. Botanical Gardens
    3. Biological museums
    4. Zoological Parks
    5. Key
    6. Molecular taxonomy
    7. Automated species identification tools
2 Biological Classification
  • Biological Classification 
    • Biological classification
    • Dichotomous key
    • Features of dichotomous key
    • Dichotomy of Animals
  • History of Classification 
    • History of Classification
    • Aristotle
    • Theophrastus
    • John Ray
    • Carolus Linnaeus
    • Ernst Haeckal
    • Herbert F. Copeland
    • R.H.Whittaker
    • Carl Woese
  • Five Kingdom Classification 
    • Five kingdom classification
    • Merits of five kingdom classification
    • Demerits of five kingdom classification
  • Kingdom Monera 
    • Kingdom Monera
    • Bacteria
    • Characteristic features of Kingdom Monera
    • Structure of a bacterium cell
  • Bacteria 
    • Bacteria - Bacteria Friends or Foes?
    • Bacteriology - Milestones in Bacteriology
    • Characteristic features of Bacteria
    1. Habitat
    2. Size and Shape
    3. Cellular Structure
    4. Nutrition
    5. Locomotion
    6. Life Cycle
    7. Reproduction
    • Classification of Bacteria 
      • Classification of bacteria:
      1. Based on the shape -
        (i) Bacillus (Rod-shaped)
        (ii) Spirilla or spirochete (Spiral)
        (iii) Coccus (Sphere)
        (iv) Vibrio (Comma-shaped)
        (v) Stalked
        (vi) Budded
      2. Based on number and arrangement of flagella -
        (i) Monotrichous
        (ii) Lophotrichous
        (iii) Amphitrichous
        (iv) Peritrichous
        (v) Atrichous
      3. Based on the Composition of the Cell Wall -
        (i) Peptidoglycan cell wall
        (ii) Lipopolysaccharide cell wall
      4. Based on the Mode of Nutrition -
        (i) Autotrophic Bacteria
        (ii) Heterotrophic Bacteria
      5. Based on the Mode of Respiration -
        (i) Anaerobic Bacteria
        (ii) Aerobic Bacteria
    • Structure of Bacteria 
      • Structure of Bacteria - 
      • Capsule/Glycocalyx
      • Cell wall
      • Plasma membrane
      • Cytoplasm
      • Nucleoid
      • Plasmids
      • Flagella
      • Pili or Fimbriae
      • Bacterial chromosome
      • Mesosomes
      • Polysomes / Polyribosomes
  • Kingdom Monera 
    • Division of Kingdom Monera 
      • Division of Kingdom Monera
      • Sub-kingdom: Archaebacteria
      • Sub-Kingdom: Eubacteria
      • Phylum Cyanobacteria
      • Phylum Anaerobic Phototrophic Bacteria
      • Phylum Prochlorophyta
      • Phylum Schizophyta
  • Kingdom Protista 
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Characteristics of Kingdom Protista
    • Classification of Kingdom Protista 
      • Major Groups of Protists
      1. Chrysophytes
      2. Dinoflagellates
      3. Euglenoids
      4. Slime moulds
      5. Protozoans
        (i) Flagellated Protozoans
        (ii) Amoebid Protozoans
        (iii) Sporozoans
        (iv) Ciliated Protozoans
  • Protozoa 
    • Protozoa
    • Protozoology - Milestones in Protozoology
    • Characteristics of Protozoa
    1. Habitat
    2. Size and Shape
    3. Cellular Structure
    4. Nutrition
    5. Locomotion
    6. Life Cycle
    7. Reproduction
  • Kingdom Fungi 
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Characteristics of Fungi
    • Division of Kingdom Fungi 
      • Division: Gymnomycota
      • Division: Mastigomycota
      • Division: Amastigomycota
      • Classes: Oomycetes
      • Classes: Zygomycetes
      • Classes: Ascomycetes
      • Classes: Basidiomycetes
      • Classes: Phycomycetes
      • Form class: Deuteromycetes
  • Fungi 
    • Fungi - World War II and Penicillin History speaks on fungi
    • Mycology - Milestones in Mycology
    • General characteristic features 
    1. Habitat
    2. Size and Shape
    3. Cellular Structure
    4. Nutrition
    5. Locomotion
    6. Life Cycle
    7. Reproduction
    • Reproduction in Fungi 
      • Methods of reproduction in fungi
      1. Vegetative Reproduction of Fungi
        (a) Fragmentation
        (b) Budding
        (c) Fission
      2. Asexual Reproduction of Fungi
        (a) Zoospores
        (b) Conidia
        (c) Oidia/ Thallospores/ Arthrospores
        (d) Fission
        (e) Budding
        (f) Chlamydospore
      3. Sexual Reproduction of Fungi
        (a) Planogametic copulation
        (b) Gametangial contact
        (c) Gametangial copulation
        (d) Spermatization
        (e) Somatogamy
  • Structure of Fungi 
    • Structure of Fungi
    • Spores
    • Yeast
    • Mould
  • Life Processes in Fungi: Nutrition 
    • Life processes in Fungi: Nutrition
    • Parasites
    • Saprophytes
    • Symbionts
  • Kingdom Plantae 
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
    • Classification of Kingdom Plantae 
      • Classification of Kingdom Plantae
      1. Sub-kingdom Cryptogamae
        (a) Division Thallophyta
        (b) Division Bryophyta
        (c) Division Pteridophyta
      2. Sub-kingdom Phanerogamae
        (a) Gymnosperm
        (b) Angiosperms
    • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants 
      • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants
      1. Alternation of Generation
      2. Haplontic Life Cycle
      3. Diplontic Life Cycle
      4. Haplodiplontic Life Cycle
  • Kingdom Animalia 
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Characteristics of Kingdom Animalia
  • Viruses 
    • Viruses
    • Virology
    • Milestones in Virology
    • Size and Shape
    • Characteristic Features of Viruses
  • Structure and Function of Viruses 
    • Structure and Function of Viruses
    • Bacteriophage
    • Tobacco mosaic virus
    • HIV
  • Viroids 
  • Prions 
  • Lichens 
3 Plant Kingdom
  • Kingdom Plantae 
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
    • Classification of Kingdom Plantae 
      • Classification of Kingdom Plantae
      1. Sub-kingdom Cryptogamae
        (a) Division Thallophyta
        (b) Division Bryophyta
        (c) Division Pteridophyta
      2. Sub-kingdom Phanerogamae
        (a) Gymnosperm
        (b) Angiosperms
    • Systems of Plant Taxonomy 
      • Systems of Plant Taxonomy
      1. Artificial system of Plant classification
      2. Natural system of Plant classification
      3. Phylogenetic system of classification
        (a) Numerical Taxonomy
        (b) Cytotaxonomy
        (c) Chemotaxonomy
      4. Modern system of classification
    • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants 
      • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants
      1. Alternation of Generation
      2. Haplontic Life Cycle
      3. Diplontic Life Cycle
      4. Haplodiplontic Life Cycle
  • Thallophyta 
    • Thallophytes
    • Characteristics of Thallophyta
    • Division of Thallophyta: Algae and Fungi
  • Algae 
    • Algae
    • Algology - Milestones in algology (Phycology)
    • Characteristics of algae
    • Classification of algae
      (i) Chlorophyceae
      (ii) Phaeophyceae
      (iii) Rhodophyceae
  • Bryophytes: Amphibians of Plant Kingdom 
    • Bryophytes: Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
    • Characteristic of Bryophytes
    • Classification of Bryophytes - Liverworts and Mosses
  • Pteridophytes: Seedless Vascular Cryptogams 
    • Pteridophytes: Seedless Vascular Cryptogams
    • Characteristic of Pteridophytes
  • Gymnosperms: Naked Seed Producing Plants 
    • Gymnosperms: Naked seed-producing Plants
    • Characteristic of Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperms 
    • Angiosperms
    • Characteristics of Angiosperms
    • Classification of Angiosperms - Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons
4 Animal Kingdom
5 Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Plant Morphology 
    • Plant morphology
    • Classification of plant morphology
    1. Vegetative morphology
      Component of vegetative morphology
      (a) Habit
      (b) Plant habitat
      (c) Life Span
    2. Reproductive Morphology
    • Parts of a flowering plant
  • Root System 
    • Root system
    • Characteristic of the root system
    • Type of Root:
      1) Primary root
      2) Secondary root
    • Regions of root
      1) Meristematic Zone
      2) Zone of Elongation
      3) Zone of Maturation
    • Types of the root system
      1) Tap root system
      2) Fibrous root system
      3) Adventitious root system
    • Functions of root
      1) Primary function
      2) Secondary function
    • Modifications of root
  • The Leaf 
    • The Leaf
    • Characteristics of leaf
    • Functions of the leaf -
      1) Primary functions
      2) Secondary functions
    • Parts of the leaf -
      1) Leaf base (hypopodium)
      2) Petiole (stipe or mesopodium)
      3) Lamina (Leaf blade)
    • Venation -
      1) Reticulate venation
      2) Parallel venation
    • Phyllotaxy -
      1) Alternate Phyllotaxy
      2) Opposite Phyllotaxy
      3) Ternate phyllotaxy
      4) Whorled (verticillate) type of phyllotaxy
    • Leaf mosaic
    • Types of Leaves -
      1) Simple leaf
      2) Compound leaf - Pinnately and palmately compound leaf
    • Modifications of Leaves
      1) Leaf tendrils
      2) Leaf hooks
      3) Leaf Spines and Prickles
      4) Storage Leaves
      5) Phyllode
      6) Pitcher
      7) Bladder
      8) Floral leaves
    • Leaf duration - Caducuous (Fagacious), Deciduous, Evergreen and Marcescent
  • Shoot System 
    • The steam
    • Characteristic features of the stem
    • Functions of the stem
      (i) Primary functions
      (ii) Secondary functions
    • Buds
    • Types of Stem - Excurrent, Decurrent, Caudex, and Culm
    • Modification of Stem
      1) Aerial modification of stem
      2) Subaerial stem modifications
      3) Underground stem modifications
      4) Stem Branching
  • The Inflorescence 
    • Inflorescence
    • Types of Inflorescence
      1) Based On Position - Terminal, Auxillary, and Cauliflorous
      2) Based on branching pattern and other characters -Indeterminate (Racemose), Determinate (Cymose), Mixed inflorescence and Special inflorescence
    • Racemose Inflorescence
      1) Main axis elongated - Simple raceme, Spike, Spikelet, Catkin, Spadix and Pancile
      2) Main axis shortened - Corymb, Umbel
      3) Main axis flattened - Head, 
    • Cymose inflorescence - 
      1) Simple cyme (solitary)
      2) Monochasial Cyme (uniparous) - Helicoid and Scorpioid
      3) Simple dichasium (Biparous)
      4) Compound dichasium:
      5) Polychasial Cyme (multiparous)
    • Mixed Inflorescence
      1) Thyrsus
      2) Verticillaster
    • Special Inflorescence
      1) Cyathium
      2) Hypanthodium
      3) Coenanthium
  • The Flower 
    • Flower
    • Whorls of flower - Complete and Incomplete
    • Flower sex 
      1) Perfect or bisexual
      2) Imperfect or unisexual: Staminate and Pistillate flowers
    • Plant sex
      1) Hermaphroditic
      2) Monoecious
      3) Dioecious
      4) Polygamous
    • Flower symmetry
      1) Actinomorphic (or) radial or polysymmetric
      2) Zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry) or monosymmetric
      3) Asymmetric (amorphic)
    • Types of Flower
      1) Types of flower depending upon the number of floral appendages
      i) Trimerous
      ii) Tetramerous
      iii) Pentamerous
      2) Types of flowers depending on presence of bracts
      i) Bracteate
      ii) Ebracteate
      3) Types of flower based on the position of calyx, corolla and androecium in respect of the ovary on thalamus
      i) Hypogynous
      ii) Perigynous
      iii) Epigynous
  • Parts of Flower 
  • The Fruit 
    • The Fruits - Pomology
    • Structure of Fruit - Pericarp, epicarp, mesocarp, endocarp.
    • Types of Fruits
      1) Simple fruits
      a) Fleshy Fruit
      b) Dry Fruit
      2) Aggregate Fruit
      3) Multiple Fruit
    • Parts of a typical fruit
      a) Pericarp
      b) Seeds
      c) Drupe
    • Function of Fruits
  • The Seed 
    • The seed
    • Types of seed
      A) Based on the number of cotyledons two types of seeds are recognized.
      (i) Dicotyledonous seed
      (ii) Monocotyledonous seed
      B) Based on the presence or absence of the endosperm the seed is of two types. 
      (i) Albuminous or Endospermous seed
      (ii) Ex-albuminous or non- endospermous seed
    • Significance of Seeds
  • Classification and Structure of Seeds 
  • Semi-technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant 
  • Plant Forms and Functions 
6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants
7 Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Introduction of Structural Organisation in Animals 
  • Animal Tissues 
    • Epithelial Tissue 
      • Epithelial Tissue
      • Location and Structure
      • Types of Epithelial Tissue
      1. Simple epithelium Tissue
        1. Squamous epithelial tissue
        2. Cuboidal epithelial tissue
        3. Columnar epithelium
        4. Ciliated epithelium
        5. Glandular epithelium
        6. Sensory epithelial tissue
        7. Germinal epithelial tissue
      2. Compound epithelial tissue
        a. Stratified epithelium
        b. Transitional epithelium
      • Cell junctions 
        Types of Cell junction
        - Tight junctions (TJs)
        - Hemidesmosomes (HDs)
        - Gap Junctions (GJs)
        - Adherens Junctions (AJs)
        - Desmosomes (Ds)
    • Connective Tissue 
      • Connective Tissue
      • Types of connective tissue
      1. Loose connective tissue
        1) Areolar tissue
        2) Adipose tissue
      2. Dense connective tissue
        1) Dense regular connective tissues
        2) Dense irregular connective tissues
      3. Specialised (supporting) connective tissue
        1) Cartilage
        a) Hyaline cartilage
        b) Elastic cartilage
        c) Fibrocartilage
        d) Calcified cartilage
        2) Bone
        3) Blood
      4. Fluid Connective tissue (Vascular)
    • Muscular Tissue 
      • Muscle Tissue 
      • Types of muscles
        1) Skeletal muscles
        2) Smooth or Non-striated muscles,
        3) Cardiac Muscles
  • Earthworm - Lampito Mauritii 
    • Earthworms
    • Classification of earthworm
    • Economic importance of earthworm
    • Anatomy of Earthworm 
      • Anatomy and functions of different systems of earthworm
      1. Digestive system
      2. Respiratory system
      3. Circulatory system
      4. Nervous system
      5. Excretory system
      6. Reproductive system
      7. Life cycle
  • Cockroach - Periplaneta Americana 
    • Anatomy of Cockroach 
      • Anatomy and functions of different systems of cockroach
      1. Digestive system
      2. Respiratory system
      3. Circulatory system
      4. Nervous system
      5. Excretory system
      6. Reproductive system
  • Frog - Rana Hexadactyla 
    • Anatomy of Frog 
      • Anatomy and functions of different systems of frog
      1. Digestive System
      2. Respiratory System
      3. Blood-Vascular System
      4. Nervous System
      5. Excretory system
      6. Reproductive system
8 Cell - The Unit of Life
9 Biomolecules
10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
11 Transport in Plants
13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
14 Respiration in Plants
15 Plant Growth and Development
16 Digestion and Absorption (Part B)
  • Introduction of Digestion and Absorption 
  • Alimentary Canal 
    • Alimentary canal
    • The human alimentary canal consists following parts:
    1. Buccal (oral) cavity
      a) Mouth
      b) Teeth - thecodont, Diphyodont, enamel, Types of Teeth: Incisors, Canines, Premolars, Molars, Dental Formula → Arrangement of teeth in each half of the upper and lower jaw
      c) Tongue
    2. Pharynx
    3. Oesophagus (food pipe)
    4. Stomach: Cardiac region, Fundic region, Body (Main central region), Pyloric region.
    5. Small Intestine: Duodenum, Jejunum, IIleum
    6. Large Intestine: Caccum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal
    7. Anus: Wall of Alimentary canal
      i) Serosa
      ii) Muscularis
      iii) Submucosa
      iv) Mucosa
  • Digestive Glands 
    • Digestive Glands
    1. Salivary gland:
      a) Parotid gland
      b) Subligual gland
      c) Submaxillary/ Submandibular gland
    2. Liver
    3. Gall bladder
    4. Pancreas
  • Digestion of Food 
  • Absorption of Digested Products 
    • Absorption of substances takes place in different parts of the alimentary canal, like mouth, stomach, small intestine and large intestine
  • Nutritional and Digestive Tract Disorders 
    • Disorders of the digestive system
    1. Inflammation of the intestinal tract
    2. Jaundice
    3. Vomiting 
    4. Diarrhoea
    5. Constipation
    6. Indigestion
    • PEM (Protein-energy malnutrition)
    1. Kwashiorkar
    2. Marasmus
  • Role of Digestive Enzymes and Gastrointestinal Hormones 
    • In Buccal Cavity: Constituents of saliva, Salivary amylase, Lysozyme
    • In Stomach:
      a) Gastric glands: Chief/ peptic (zymogen cells), Oxyntic/ parietal cells, Mucus neck cells, Gastric Juice, gastric secretion
    • In Small Intestine: Intestinal juice (Succus entericus)
      a) Role of bite in fat digestion
      b) Role of Pancreatic Juice
      ⇒ In carbohydrate digestion
      ⇒ In protein digestion
      ⇒ In fat digestion
      ⇒ In Nucleic acid digestion
      c) Role of intestinal juice indigestion
      ⇒ In carbohydrate digestion
      ⇒ In protein digestion
      ⇒ In fat digestion
      ⇒ In Nucleic acid digestion
    • Large Intestine
      ⇒ Neural and hormonal control on digestion process
  • Peristalsis, Digestion, Absorption and Assimilation of Proteins, Carbohydrates and Fats 
    • Absorption
    • It is carried out by various processes:
    1. Passive Absorption
      ⇒ Process
      a) Simple diffusion
      b) Osmosis
      c) Facilitated transport
    2. Active absorption
    • Absorption of fatty acids and glycerol
    • Absorption in different parts of the alimentary canal
    • Assimilation
  • Digestion and Absorption Questions 
  • Calorific Values of Proteins 
  • Calorific Values of Carbohydrates 
  • Calorific Values of Fats 
  • Egestion of Food 
17 Breating and Exchange of Gases (Part B)
18 Body Fluids and Circulation (Part A)
19 Excretory Products and Their Elimination (Part B)
20 Locomotion and Movement (Part B)
21 Neural Control and Coordination (Part B)
22 Chemical Coordination and Integration (Part A)
  • Introduction of Chemical Coordination and Integration 
  • Human Endocrine System 
    • Human Endocrine System
    • The hormones at a glance
  • Human Endocrine Glands 
    • The Hypothalamus 
      • The Hypothalamus: Neurosecretory cells
      • Hormones produced by hypothalamus are of two types:
        (i) Releasing hormones
        (ii) Inhibiting hormones
    • Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland 
      • Pituitary gland
      • Division of pituitary gland
        (i) Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary): Pars distalis, pars tuberalis
        (ii) Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary): Pars nervosa, infundibulum, MSH (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone)
      • Hormones of adenohypophysis/ hormones of pars distalis:
        (i) Growth Hormone (GH)
        (ii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
        (iii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
        (iv) Prolactin
        (v) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
        (vi) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
      • Hormones of neurohypophysis
    • Thyroid Gland 
      • Thyroid gland: Isthmus, Follicles and stromal tissues, tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyrocalcitonin (TCT), Iodine
      • Functions of thyroid hormones
    • Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland) 
      • Adrenal Gland
      • Hormones and functions of adrenal gland
        (i) Adrenal cortex: Zona reticularis, Zona Fasciculata
        (ii) Adrenal medulla: Adrenaline, Nor-adrenaline, Catecholamines, emergency hormones or hormones of fight or flight
    • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) 
      • Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans): α-cells and β-cells
        (i) Insulin
        (ii) Glucagon
      • Other hormone secreting cells of islets of Langerhans
        (i) Delta or D cells
        (ii) F cells
    • Testis 
      • Testes
      • Functions of hormones
    • Ovary 
      • Ovary
      • Functions of oestrogen
      • Functions of progesterone
      • Inhibin
      • Relaxin
  • Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract 
    • Hormones are also secreted by some tissues which are not endocrine glands:
      1) Heart
      2) Kidney
      3) Gastro-intestinal tract: Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin (CCK), Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
  • Mechanism of Hormone Action 
    • Mechanism of Hormone Action
    • Hormones and their types
    • Target cells have specific receptors
  • Role of Hormones as Messengers and Regulators 
    • Types of effects of hormones regulate metabolism and body functions
      1) Permissive effect
      2) Synergistic effect
      3) Antagonistic effect
  • Hypo and Hyperactivity and Related Disorders 
    • Gigantism
    • Acromegaly
    • Pituitary dwarfism
    • Diabetes insipidus
    • Graves' disease (Exophthalmic goiter)
    • Cretinism
    • Goitre
    • Addison's disease
    • Diabetes mellitus
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration (Questions) 

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