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Biology NEET (UG) Topics and Syllabus

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Syllabus

1 The Living World
  • The Living World 
    • Introduction
    • What is ‘Living’?
    • Characteristics of living organisms
    1. Growth
    2. Reproduction
    3. Cellular structure
    4. Response to stimuli
    5. Homeostasis
    6. Metabolism
    • Difference  between anabolism and catabolism
  • Diversity in the Living World 
    • Diversity in the Living World
    • Biodiversity
    • Types of Biodiversity
    1. Genetic Biodiversity
    2. Species Biodiversity
    3. Ecological Biodiversity
  • Nomenclature 
    • Nomenclature
    • Identification
    • Need for naming living organisms
    • Types of Nomenclature
    1. Vernacular/Local/Common names
    2. Scientific names
      (a) Binomial Nomenclature
      (b) Trinominal Nomenclature
    • Binomial Nomenclature 
      • Scientific names
      • Binomial Nomenclature
      • Need for Binomial Nomenclature
      • Universal rules of Binomial Nomenclature
      • Scientific names of some common organisms
      • Importance of Binomial Nomenclature
      • The drawback of Binomial Nomenclature
  • Classification 
    • Classification
    • Why do we classify things?
    • Need for Classification
    • Advantage of Classification
  • Taxonomy and Systematics 
    • Taxonomy
    • Systematics
    • Classification of Taxonomy
    1. Plant Taxonomy
    2. Animal Taxonomy
  • Taxonomic Hierarchy of Living Organisms: Unit of Classification 
    • Taxonomic Hierarchy of Living Organisms
    • Species
    • Genus
    • Family
    • Order
    • Class
    • Phylum
    • Kingdom
  • Taxonomical Aids 
    • Taxonomical Aids
    • Usage of Taxonomical Aids
    • Herbarium
    • Botanical Gardens
    • Biological museums
    • Zoological Parks
    • Key
    • Molecular taxonomy
    • Automated species identification tools
2 Biological Classification
  • Biological Classification 
    • Biological classification
    • Dichotomous key
    • Features of dichotomous key
    • Dichotomy of Animals
  • History of Classification 
    • History of Classification
    • Aristotle
    • Theophrastus
    • John Ray
    • Carolus Linnaeus
    • Ernst Haeckal
    • R.H.Whittaker
    • Carl Woese
  • Five Kingdom Classification 
    • Five kingdom classification
    • Merits of five kingdom classification
    • Demerits of five kingdom classification
  • Kingdom Monera 
    • Kingdom Monera
    • Bacteria
    • Characteristic features of Kingdom Monera
    • Structure of a bacterium cell
  • Bacteria 
    • Bacteria
    • Bacteria Friends or Foes?
    • Bacteriology
    • Milestones in Bacteriology
    • Characteristic features of Bacteria
    • Numbers of Bacteria
    • Size of Bacteria
  • Classification of Bacteria 
    • Classification of bacteria according to the shape of their cell:
    • Bacilli
    • Spirilla
    • Cocci
    • Vibrio 
    • Stalked
    • Budded
    • Classification of bacteria according to the number and arrangement of flagella
    • Monotrichous
    • Lophotrichous
    • Amphitrichous
    • Peritrichous
    • Atrichous
    • Classification of bacteria based on the Composition of the Cell Wall
    • Peptidoglycan cell wall
    • Lipopolysaccharide cell wall
    • Classification of bacteria based on the Mode of Nutrition
    • Autotrophic Bacteria
    • Heterotrophic Bacteria
    • Classification of bacteria based on the Mode of Respiration
    • Anaerobic Bacteria
    • Aerobic Bacteria
  • Structure of Bacteria 
    • Structure of Bacteria
    • Capsule/Glycocalyx
    • Cell wall
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleoid
    • Plasmids
    • Flagella
    • Pili or Fimbriae
    • Bacterial chromosome
    • Mesosomes
    • Polysomes / Polyribosomes
  • Division of Kingdom Monera 
    • Division of Kingdom Monera
    • Sub-kingdom: Archaebacteria
    • Sub-Kingdom: Eubacteria
    • Phylum Cyanobacteria
    • Phylum Anaerobic Phototrophic Bacteria
    • Phylum Prochlorophyta
    • Phylum Schizophyta
  • Examples of Monera 
    • Examples of Monera
    • Mycoplasma or Mollicutes
    • Actinomycetes (Actinobacteria)
  • Kingdom Protista 
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Protozoa
    • Characteristics of Kingdom Protista
    • Structure of Protozoa (Amoeba)
  • Protozoa 
    • Protozoa
    • Protozoology
    • Milestones in Protozoology
    • Characteristics of Protozoa
    • Structure of Protozoa (Amoeba)
    • Numbers of Protozoa
    • Size of Protozoa
  • Major Groups of Protists 
    • Major Groups of Protists
    • Chrysophytes
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Euglenoids
    • Slime moulds
    • Protozoans
      (i) Flagellated Protozoans
      (ii) Amoebid Protozoans
      (iii) Sporozoans
      (iv) Ciliated Protozoans
  • Kingdom Fungi 
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Fungi
    • Characteristics of Fungi
    • Structure of Fungi
  • Fungi 
    • Fungi
    • Mycology
    • Milestones in Mycology
    • World War II and Penicillin History speaks on fungi
    • Characteristics of Fungi
    • Structure of Fungi
    • Numbers of Fungi
  • Structure of Fungi 
    • Structure of Fungi
    • Spores
    • Yeast
    • Mould
  • Life Processes in Fungi: Nutrition 
    • Life processes in Fungi: Nutrition
    • Parasites
    • Saprophytes
    • Symbionts
  • Life Processes in Fungi: Reproduction 
    • Vegetative Reproduction of Fungi
    • Fragmentation
    • Budding
    • Fission
    • Asexual Reproduction of Fungi
    • Zoospores
    • Conidia
    • Oidia/ Thallospores/ Arthrospores
    • Fission
    • Budding
    • Chlamydospore
    • Sexual Reproduction of Fungi
    • Planogametic copulation
    • Gametangial contact
    • Gametangial copulation
    • Spermatization
    • Somatogamy
  • Division of Kingdom Fungi 
    • Division: Gymnomycota
    • Division: Mastigomycota
    • Division: Amastigomycota
    • Classes: Oomycetes
    • Classes: Zygomycetes
    • Classes: Ascomycetes
    • Classes: Basidiomycetes
    • Classes: Phycomycetes
    • Form class: Deuteromycetes
  • Kingdom Plantae 
    • Kingdom Plantea
    • Characteristic of Kingdom Plantea
    • Classification of Kingdom Plantea
  • Classification of Kingdom Plantea 
    • Classification of Kingdom Plantea
    • Thallophyta
    • Bryophytes
    • Pteridophytes
    • Phanerogams
      (a) Gymnosperm
      (b) Angiosperms
  • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants 
    • Life Cycle Patterns in Plants
    • Alternation of Generation
    • Haplontic Life Cycle
    • Diplontic Life Cycle
    • Haplodiplontic Life Cycle
  • Kingdom Animalia 
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Characteristics of Kingdom Animalia
  • Viruses 
    • Viruses
    • Virology
    • Milestones in Virology
    • Size and Shape
    • Characteristic Features of Viruses
  • Structure and Function of Viruses 
    • Structure and Function of Viruses
    • Bacteriophage
    • Tobacco mosaic virus
    • HIV
  • Viroids 
  • Prions 
  • Lichens 
3 Plant Kingdom
4 Animal Kingdom
500 Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Morphology and modifications:- Tissues
600 Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).
700 Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).
800 Cell - The Unit of Life
  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life:- Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles - structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
900 Biomolecules
  • Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.
1000 Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
1100 Transport in Plants
  • Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, lmbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water-Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients - Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.
1200 Mineral Nutrition
  • Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
1300 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
1400 Respiration in Plants
  • Exchange of gases; cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations · number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
1500 Plant Growth and Development
  • Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators - auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.
1600 Digestion and Absorption (Part B)
  • Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

1700 Breating and Exchange of Gases (Part B)
  • Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration · asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

1800 Body Fluids and Circulation (Part A)
  • Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system - Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system - hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

1900 Excretory Products and Their Elimination (Part B)
  • Modes of excretion - ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system - structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function - renin - angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders - uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

2000 Locomotion and Movement (Part B)
  • Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system - myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

2100 Neural Control and Coordination (Part B)
  • Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans - central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

2200 Chemical Coordination and Integration (Part A)
  • Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system - hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo - and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison's disease.
  • Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.

[Part (A) will be assessed through OTBA whereas from the Part (B), there will be usual conceptual question in year end examination.]

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