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Question Bank Solutions for UG-CLAT - Legal Reasoning

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In this Question, problem consists of a set of rules and facts. Apply the specified rules to the set of facts and answer the question.

Rules 
A. The act of using threats to force another person to enter into a contract is called coercion.
B. The act of using influence on another and taking undue advantage of that person is called undue influence.
C. In order to prove coercion, the existence of the use of threat, in any form and manner, is necessary. If coercion is proved, the person who has been so threatened can refuse to abide by the contract.
D. In order to prove undue-influence, there has to be a pre-existing relationship between the parties to a contract. The relationship has to be of such a nature that one is in a position to influence the other. If it is proven that there has been undue influence, the party who has been so influenced need not enforce the contract or perform his obligations under the contract.

Facts 
Aadil and Baalu are best friends. Aadil is the son of a multi-millionaire business person, Chulbal who owns Maakhan Pharmaceuticals. Baalu is the son of a bank employee, Dhanraj. One day, Aadil is abducted from his office by Baalu. Chulbul receives a phone call from Dhamaj telling him that if he does not make Baalu the CEO of NIaakhan Pharmaceuticals, Aadil will be killed. Chulbul reluctantly agrees to make the Baalu the CEO. Subsequently, Chulbul and Baalu sign an employment contract. However, as soon as Aadil is released and safely returns home, Chulbul tells Baala that he shall not enforce the employment contract. Baalu and Dhanraj are not sure as to what is to be done next.

As per the rules and the given facts, who coerces whom:

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

In this Question problem consists of a set of rules and facts. Apply the specified rules to the set of facts and answer the question. In answering the following question, you should not rely on any rule(s) except the rule(s) that are supplied for problem. Further, you should not assume any fact other than 'those stated in the problem. The aim is to test your ability to properly apply a rule to a given set of facts, even when the result is absurd or unacceptable for any other reason. It is not the aim to test any knowledge of law you may already possess. 

Rule: 
Whoever finds an unattended object can keep it unless the true owner claims that object. This does not affect the property owner's right to the ownership of the property on which the object is found. The right to ownership of a property does not include the right to ownership of unattended objects on that property. 

Facts: 
Elizabeth is the CEO of a global management services company in Chennai and is on her way to Ranchi to deliver the convocation address at India's leading business school on the outskirts of Ranchi. Flying business class on Dolphin Airlines, she is entitled to use the lounge owned by the airline in Chennai Airport while waiting for her flight. She finds a diamond ear-ring on the floor of the lounge and gives it to the staff of Dolphin Airlines expressly stating that in the event of nobody claiming the ear-ring within six months, she would claim it back. The airline sells the ear-ring after eight months and Elizabeth files a case to recover the value of the ear-ring from the airline when she is informed about its sale. To the original fact scenario, the following fact is added: In the lounge there are numerous signboards which proclaim 'Any unattended item will be confiscated by Dolphin Airlines'. In this case, you would:

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

Direction : The passage given below is followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

In India the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is the apex food regulator. It is empowered by and functions under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI implements and enforces food regulations as prescribed in the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act). The FSS Act is an Act of Parliament, popularly known as the Food Act. Previous to the FSS Act there were a number of food legislations. All these have been consolidated into a homogenous whole in the FSS Act. The regulations of the FSS Act became effective in 2011 with FSSAI as its regulatory body. Though the Act continues to evolve it needs to be further harmonized with standards of international agencies for global parity.

New Draft Regulations have been formulated by FSSAI. Of special interest is Section 22 of the FSS Act, which deals with "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, Novel Foods and Health Supplements." For the first time regulations have been proposed for this category of foods. If these products propound nutritional or medicinal benefits they need to have sound scientific evidence. The products must not contain either steroids or psychotropic drugs. Ingredients like vitamins and minerals must conform to the recommended dietary allowances for Indians, as proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Organic and Traditional foods also do not require product approval as they are being consumed for centuries in India. The ingredients and preparation methods are well known and this guarantees their safety. If, however, traditional and organic foods use any new ingredients or food additive or new technologies in preparation, they need product approval.

Foods Imported into India have to follow the FSS Act, Rules & Regulations If the food articles are standardized, the importer only needs an FSSAI license to import them. The importer also needs to comply with FSSAI regulations for sale and distribution of the food products.

The existing process of product approval for the food articles governed under Section 22 of the FSS Act has been discontinued as updated on August 26, 2015 by FSSAI in response to the ruling by Honorable Supreme Court of India. The regulations on such food products are expected soon and the product approval may be reintroduced through a regulation.

These are exciting times for food safety regulations in India. The recent proposals mentioned in the new Draft Regulations will soon be finalized to become the new Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2015. They will provide new directives in areas such as nutraceuticals and health supplements, which is the need of the hour as these are becoming popular food categories. Standardization for thousands of foods is on the anvil. Food business operators are certainly anticipating some positive changes in food regulations, which could ease product approval process and food operations.

A harmonization of Indian food standards with global standards is a step in the right direction.

Which one of the following is the most important implication of the above passage?

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

Direction : The passage given below is followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

In India the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is the apex food regulator. It is empowered by and functions under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI implements and enforces food regulations as prescribed in the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act). The FSS Act is an Act of Parliament, popularly known as the Food Act. Previous to the FSS Act there were a number of food legislations. All these have been consolidated into a homogenous whole in the FSS Act. The regulations of the FSS Act became effective in 2011 with FSSAI as its regulatory body. Though the Act continues to evolve it needs to be further harmonized with standards of international agencies for global parity.

New Draft Regulations have been formulated by FSSAI. Of special interest is Section 22 of the FSS Act, which deals with "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, Novel Foods and Health Supplements." For the first time regulations have been proposed for this category of foods. If these products propound nutritional or medicinal benefits they need to have sound scientific evidence. The products must not contain either steroids or psychotropic drugs. Ingredients like vitamins and minerals must conform to the recommended dietary allowances for Indians, as proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Organic and Traditional foods also do not require product approval as they are being consumed for centuries in India. The ingredients and preparation methods are well known and this guarantees their safety. If, however, traditional and organic foods use any new ingredients or food additive or new technologies in preparation, they need product approval.

Foods Imported into India have to follow the FSS Act, Rules & Regulations If the food articles are standardized, the importer only needs an FSSAI license to import them. The importer also needs to comply with FSSAI regulations for sale and distribution of the food products.

The existing process of product approval for the food articles governed under Section 22 of the FSS Act has been discontinued as updated on August 26, 2015 by FSSAI in response to the ruling by Honorable Supreme Court of India. The regulations on such food products are expected soon and the product approval may be reintroduced through a regulation.

These are exciting times for food safety regulations in India. The recent proposals mentioned in the new Draft Regulations will soon be finalized to become the new Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2015. They will provide new directives in areas such as nutraceuticals and health supplements, which is the need of the hour as these are becoming popular food categories. Standardization for thousands of foods is on the anvil. Food business operators are certainly anticipating some positive changes in food regulations, which could ease product approval process and food operations.

A harmonization of Indian food standards with global standards is a step in the right direction.

Suppose a food supplement is launched in the market claiming a breakthrough in the food habits and dietary pattern of a population suffering from stunting and wasting. So as per the passage what is the first requirement that a food supplement company has to fulfill?

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

Direction: The passage given below is followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

In India the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is the apex food regulator. It is empowered by and functions under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI implements and enforces food regulations as prescribed in the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act). The FSS Act is an Act of Parliament, popularly known as the Food Act. Previous to the FSS Act there were a number of food legislations. All these have been consolidated into a homogenous whole in the FSS Act. The regulations of the FSS Act became effective in 2011 with FSSAI as its regulatory body. Though the Act continues to evolve it needs to be further harmonized with standards of international agencies for global parity.

New Draft Regulations have been formulated by FSSAI. Of special interest is Section 22 of the FSS Act, which deals with "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, Novel Foods and Health Supplements." For the first time regulations have been proposed for this category of foods. If these products propound nutritional or medicinal benefits they need to have sound scientific evidence. The products must not contain either steroids or psychotropic drugs. Ingredients like vitamins and minerals must conform to the recommended dietary allowances for Indians, as proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Organic and Traditional foods also do not require product approval as they are being consumed for centuries in India. The ingredients and preparation methods are well known and this guarantees their safety. If, however, traditional and organic foods use any new ingredients or food additive or new technologies in preparation, they need product approval.

Foods Imported into India have to follow the FSS Act, Rules & Regulations If the food articles are standardized, the importer only needs an FSSAI license to import them. The importer also needs to comply with FSSAI regulations for sale and distribution of the food products.

The existing process of product approval for the food articles governed under Section 22 of the FSS Act has been discontinued as updated on August 26, 2015 by FSSAI in response to the ruling by Honorable Supreme Court of India. The regulations on such food products are expected soon and the product approval may be reintroduced through a regulation.

These are exciting times for food safety regulations in India. The recent proposals mentioned in the new Draft Regulations will soon be finalized to become the new Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2015. They will provide new directives in areas such as nutraceuticals and health supplements, which is the need of the hour as these are becoming popular food categories. Standardization for thousands of foods is on the anvil. Food business operators are certainly anticipating some positive changes in food regulations, which could ease product approval process and food operations.

A harmonization of Indian food standards with global standards is a step in the right direction.

Axon a food marketing corporate giant specialized in traditional and organic products. It has captured 73% of the share in this sector across the globe. Recently in the Axon Lab a research breakthrough occurred by mixing traditional food with a newly discovered molecular formula. The new product has become a new attraction amongst the athletes due to its energy enhancement outcomes.
According to the passage does Axon has to apply for approval?

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

Direction: The passage given below is followed by a set of question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

In India the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is the apex food regulator. It is empowered by and functions under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The FSSAI implements and enforces food regulations as prescribed in the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act). The FSS Act is an Act of Parliament, popularly known as the Food Act. Previous to the FSS Act there were a number of food legislations. All these have been consolidated into a homogenous whole in the FSS Act. The regulations of the FSS Act became effective in 2011 with FSSAI as its regulatory body. Though the Act continues to evolve it needs to be further harmonized with standards of international agencies for global parity.

New Draft Regulations have been formulated by FSSAI. Of special interest is Section 22 of the FSS Act, which deals with "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, Novel Foods and Health Supplements." For the first time regulations have been proposed for this category of foods. If these products propound nutritional or medicinal benefits they need to have sound scientific evidence. The products must not contain either steroids or psychotropic drugs. Ingredients like vitamins and minerals must conform to the recommended dietary allowances for Indians, as proposed by the Indian Council of Medical Research.

Organic and Traditional foods also do not require product approval as they are being consumed for centuries in India. The ingredients and preparation methods are well known and this guarantees their safety. If, however, traditional and organic foods use any new ingredients or food additive or new technologies in preparation, they need product approval.

Foods Imported into India have to follow the FSS Act, Rules & Regulations If the food articles are standardized, the importer only needs an FSSAI license to import them. The importer also needs to comply with FSSAI regulations for sale and distribution of the food products.

The existing process of product approval for the food articles governed under Section 22 of the FSS Act has been discontinued as updated on August 26, 2015 by FSSAI in response to the ruling by Honorable Supreme Court of India. The regulations on such food products are expected soon and the product approval may be reintroduced through a regulation.

These are exciting times for food safety regulations in India. The recent proposals mentioned in the new Draft Regulations will soon be finalized to become the new Food Safety and Standards Regulations, 2015. They will provide new directives in areas such as nutraceuticals and health supplements, which is the need of the hour as these are becoming popular food categories. Standardization for thousands of foods is on the anvil. Food business operators are certainly anticipating some positive changes in food regulations, which could ease product approval process and food operations.

A harmonization of Indian food standards with global standards is a step in the right direction.

How the de-operationalized Section 22 of the FSS Act by the Honorable Supreme Court of India be revived?

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

Consists of legal proposition(s)/  principle(s) (hereinafter referred to as 'principle') and facts. Such principles may or may not be true in the real and legal sense, yet you have to conclusively assume them to be true for the purposes of this Section. In other words, in answering these questions, you must not rely on any principle except the principles that are given herein below for every question.  
Further, you must not assume any facts other than those stated in the question. The objective of this section is to test your interest in the study of law, research aptitude, and problem-solving ability, even if the 'most reasonable conclusion' arrived at may be absurd or unacceptable for any other reason. It is not the objective of this section to test your knowledge of the law.  
Therefore, to answer a question, the principle is to be applied to the given facts and to choose the most appropriate option. 

Principle: Where one of the parties to a contract was in the position to dominate the decision of the other party, the contract is enforceable only at the option of the party who was in a position to dominate the decision of the other party.

Facts:  A doctor asked his patient to make a payment of Rs. 10,00,000/- (Ten  Lac Only) for treatment of his fever. The patient paid an amount of Rs. 5,00,000/- (Five Lac Only) and promised to pay the remaining amount after the treatment. After treatment, the patient recovered from fever. The doctor demanded the remaining amount from the patient. The patient refused to pay. 

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

Principle: When, at the desire one person, any other person has done or abstained from doing something, such act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise.

Facts:  X, the uncle of Y, made a promise to pay him an amount of Rs. 1,00,000/- as a reward if Y quits smoking and drinking within one year. Y quit smoking and drinking within six months. 

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The Rule of Law means

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

In a particular case, the advice tendered by the Council of Ministers is sent back by the President for reconsideration. If the Council of Ministers adhere to their earlier advice, the President

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of legal propositions/principles (hereinafter referred to as 'principle') and facts. These principles have to be applied to the given facts to arrive at the most reasonable conclusion. Such principles may or may not be true in the real sense, yet you have to conclusively assume them to be true. In other words, in answering the following question, you must not rely on any principles except the principle that is given hereinbelow for the question. Further, you must not assume any facts other than those stated in the question. The objective of this section is to test your interest in the study of law, research aptitude, and problem-solving ability.

Principle: A person is said to be of sound mind for the purpose of making a contract if, at the time, when he makes it, he is capable of understanding it and of forming a rational judgment as to its effect upon his interest.

Facts: X, who is usually of sound mind but occasionally of unsound mind enters into a contract with Y when he (X) is of unsound mind. Y came to know about this fact afterward and now wants to file a suit against X.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as principle and other as Fact. You are to exa.mine the principle and apply it to the given facts carefully and select the best option.

Principle: A master is liable for the acts committed by his servant in the course of employment.

Fact: Sanjay is a driver working in Brookebond and co. One day, the manager asked him to drop a customer at the airport and get back at the earliest. on hiS way back from the airport, he happened 10 see his fian~ Ruhina waiting for a bus to go home. He offered to drop her at home, which happened to be close to his office. She got into the car and soon thereafter, the car somersaulted due to the negligence or Sanjay. Ruhina was thrown out of the car and suffered multiple in Juries. She seeks compensation from Brookebond and Co.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as principle and other as Fact. You are to exa.mine the principle and apply it to the given facts carefully and select the best option.

PRINCIPLE: Everybody is under a legal obligation to take reasonable care to avoid an act or omission which he can foresee would injure his neighbor. The neighbor for this purpose is any person whom he should have in his mind as likely t0 be affected by his act.

FACT: Krishnan. while driving a car at high speed on a crowded road, knocked down a cyclist. The cyclist died on the spot with a lot of blood spilling around, Lakshmi, a pregnant "NOman passing by, suffered from a nervous shock, leading to abortion. Lakshmi filed a suit against Krishnan claiming damages.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as principle and other as Fact. You are to exa.mine the principle and apply it to the given facts carefully and select the best option.

PRINCIPLE: Preparation is not an offense except the preparation of some special offenses.

FACT: Ramesh keeps poisoned halua in his house, wishing to kill Binoy whom he invited to a party and to whom he wishes to give it Unknown to Ramesh. his only son takes the halua and dies. In this case.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as a principle and other as Fact. You are to exa.mine the principle and apply it to the given facts carefully and select the best option.

PRINCIPAL: ignorantia juris nonexcusat and ingnorantia facit excusat

FACT: George was a passenger from Zurich to Manila in a Swiss Plane. When the plane landed at the airport at Etombay on 28th Nov. 1962 it was found on search that George carried 34 kgs of gold bars in person and that he had not declared it in the 'Manifest for transfer. On 28th Nov. 1962 Govemment of India issued a notification and modified its earlier exemption and now it is necessary that the gold must be declared in the "Manifest" of the aircraft.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as principle and other as Fact. You are to exa.mine the principle and apply it to the given facts carefully and select the best option.

PRINCIPLE: "Nobody shall unlawfully interfere with a person's use or enjoyment of land, 0( some right over, or in connection with it. The use or enjoyment, envisaged herein, should be normal and reasonable taking into account surrounding Situation.

FACT: jeevan and Pavan were neighbors in a residential locality. Pavan started a typing class in a part of his house and his typing sound disturbed jeevan who could not put up with any kind of continuous noise. He filed a suit against Pavan.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R).
You are to examine the two statements carefully and select the best option.

Assertion: Custom per se is law, independent of prior recognition by the sovereign or the judge.

Reason: Custom is source of Jaw but by itself is not law.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R).
You are to examine the two statements carefully and select the best option.

Assertion: Idol is a person who can hold property.

Reason: Only human being can be called person, not lifeless things.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R).
You are to examine the two statements carefully and select the best option.

Assertion: Laws are means of achieving an end namely social control.

Reason: The ultimate end of law is to secure greatest happiness to greatest number.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)

The question consists of two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R).
You are to examine the two statements carefully and select the best option.

Assertion: Attempt to commit an offence enough does not result in any harm should also be punished

Reason: A person who tries to cause prohibited harm and fails, is, in terms of moral culpability, not materially different from the person who tries and succeeds.

[0.01] Legal Reasoning
Chapter: [0.01] Legal Reasoning
Concept: Study of Law (Entrance Exams)
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