HSC Science (General) 12th Board ExamMaharashtra State Board
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Question Paper Solutions - Biology 2016 - 2017 HSC Science (General) 12th Board Exam

SubjectBiology
Year2016 - 2017 (July)

Marks: 70
[7]1 | Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each sub-question
[1]1.1

_______ enzymes are used as biological scissors in r-DNA technology.

(A) Restriction endonucleases

(B) DNA ligases

(C) DNA polymerases

(D) Reverse transcriptases

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Bacteriophages
[1]1.2

Vijaya, Padma, Kanti and Jayanti are high yielding varieties of __________.

(A) wheat

(B) jowar

(C) sugarcane

(D) rice

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
[1]1.3

Mitochondria are regarded as semiautonomous organelles, due to the presence of__________

(A) Cristae

(B) RNA

(C) DNA

(D) F1 particles

Chapter: [1.02] Gene - Its Nature, Expression and Regulation
Concept: Structure of DNA and RNA
[1]1.4

Ozone depletion is occuring widely in the stratosphere, it leads to ozone hole caused mainly due to ............

(a) ethylene
(b) methane
(c) CFCs
(d) CO2

Chapter: [6.01] Organisms and Environment 1 - Habitat and Niche
Concept: Ozone - Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
[1]1.5

The partially decomposed organic matter is formed by a process called

  1. fragmentation
  2. humification
  3. mineralisation
  4. leaching
Chapter: [6.01] Organisms and Environment 1 - Habitat and Niche
Concept: Productivity
[1]1.6

The number of adenine molecules in a given DNA segment is 25 and the number of cytosine molecules is 45, the total number of nucleotides in the segment is____

(A) 70

(B) 140

(C) 90

(D) 50

Chapter: [1.02] Gene - Its Nature, Expression and Regulation
Concept: The DNA - Packaging of Dna Helix
[1]1.7

The microbial source of vinegar is

(A) Aspergillus niger

(B) Rhizopus arrhizus

(C) Acetobacter aceti

(D) Streptomyces venezuelae

Chapter: [3.02] Microbes in Human Welfare
Concept: Microbes in Household Products
[12]2
[6]2.1 | Answer in ‘One’ sentence only :
[1]2.1.1

What is heterocyst?

Chapter: [4.01] Photosynthesis
Concept: Electron Transport - Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation
[1]2.1.2

What are plasmids?

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
[1]2.1.3

Why Chl-a (Chlorophyll-a) is Called Essential Pigment?

Chapter: [4.01] Photosynthesis
Concept: Pigments Are Involved in Photosynthesis
[1]2.1.4

Define global warming.

Chapter: [6.01] Organisms and Environment 1 - Habitat and Niche
Concept: Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change
[1]2.1.5

Give the meaning of Nif gene.

Chapter: [1.02] Gene - Its Nature, Expression and Regulation
Concept: Regulation of Gene Expression - The Lac Operon
[1]2.1.6

Name the aquatic fern commonly used in paddy field as a biofertilizer.

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
[2]2.2

Sketch and label the ultrastructure of chloroplast.

Chapter: [4.01] Photosynthesis
Concept: Photorespiration
[4]2.3 | Attempt any TWO of the following:
[2]2.3.1

Enlist the advantages of Biogas

Chapter: [3.02] Microbes in Human Welfare
Concept: Microbes in Production of Biogas
[2]2.3.2

Give the names of ‘two’ insect-resistant crop varieties

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
[2]2.3.3

Enlist the causes of deforestation

Chapter: [6.01] Organisms and Environment 1 - Habitat and Niche
Concept: Deforestation
[2]2.3.4

Give the floral adaptations of entomophily

Chapter: [5.01] Reproduction in Plants
Concept: Flower – a Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms
[6]3
[6]3.1 | Attempt any TWO of the following:
[3]3.1.1

Explain 'Wobble hypothesis' with the help of a suitable diagram.

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Preparing and Cloning a DNA Library
[3]3.1.2

Describe the connecting link between glycolysis and Krebs’ cycle.

Chapter: [4.02] Respiration
Concept: Glycolysis
[3]3.1.3

Give the diagrammatic representation of ETS

Chapter: [4.01] Photosynthesis
Concept: Electron Transport - Cyclic and Non-cyclic Photo-phosphorylation
[3]3.2

Sketch and label lytic cycle.

Chapter: [2.01] Biotechnology - Process and Application
Concept: Preparing and Cloning a DNA Library
[7]4 | Attempt any one of the following:
[7]4.1

What is Neo-Mendelian genetics?

Chapter: [1.01] Genetic Basis of Inheritance
Concept: Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

Describe quantitative inheritance controlled by two pairs of genes. 

Chapter: [1.01] Genetic Basis of Inheritance
Concept: Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
[7]4.2

Enlist advantages and disadvantages of cross pollination

Chapter: [5.01] Reproduction in Plants
Concept: Pre-fertilisation - Structures and Events - Pollination

Add a note on pollination mechanism in Salvia.

Chapter: [5.01] Reproduction in Plants
Concept: Pre-fertilisation - Structures and Events - Pollination
[7]5 | Select and write the most appropriate answer from the given alternatives for each subquestion:
[1]5.1

Overproduction is the principle of

(A) Lamarckism

(B) Theory of organic evolution

(C) Panspermia theory

(D) Modern theory of evolution

Chapter: [7.01] Origin and the Evolution of Life
Concept: Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution
[1]5.2

Myopia is an example of __________.

(A) complete sex-linkage

(B) incomplete sex-linkage

(C) recombination

(D) crossing over

Chapter: [12.01] Organisms and Environment 2
Concept: Population and Ecological Adaptations
[1]5.3

__________ is the infectious stage of Plasmodium.

(A) Tropozoite

(B) Sporozoite

(C) Cryptozoite

(D) Metacercaria

Chapter: [9.01] Human Health and Diseases
Concept: Infectious and Non Infectious Disease
[1]5.4

Which of the following is a chemical transmitter in synapse of neurons?

(A) cholesterol

(B) A.T.P.

(C) cholinesterase

(D) acetylcholine

Chapter: [9.01] Human Health and Diseases
Concept: Introduction of Human Health and Diseases
[1]5.5

The external layer of connective tissue sheath of human testis is __________.

(A) tunica vasculosa

(B) tunica vaginalis

(C) tunica granulosa

(D) tunica albuginea

Chapter: [11.01] Human Reproduction
Concept: Microscopic Anatomy of Testis
[1]5.6

Glucose is taken back from glomerular filtrate ___________

(A) along with concentration gradient
(B) against concentration gradient
(C) by simple diffusion
(D) by tubular secretion

Chapter: [10.02] Excretion and Osmoregulation
Concept: Urine Formation
[1]5.7

Pituitary dwarfism is treated with gene therapy by____

(A) Human insulin
(B) Tissue growth factor - Beta
(C) Tissue plasmogen activator
(D) Human growth hormone producer gene

Chapter: [11.01] Human Reproduction
Concept: The Male Reproductive System
[12]6
[6]6.1 | Answer in ‘One’ sentence each:
[1]6.1.1

Mention the first vaccine developed against any human disease.

Chapter: [9.01] Human Health and Diseases
Concept: Concept of Immunity
[1]6.1.2

Name the ‘two’ types of maps generated by H.G.P.

Chapter: [7.02] Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Concept: Inheritance of Two Genes - Linkage and Crossing Over
[1]6.1.3

What is ‘syndrome’?

Chapter: [7.02] Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Concept: Genetic Disorders - Chromosomal Disorders
[1]6.1.4

Name the type of T-lymphocyte which secretes perforins.

Chapter: [10.01] Circulation
Concept: Lymph (Tissue Fluid)
[1]6.1.5

What is the full form of IVF?

Chapter: [11.01] Human Reproduction
Concept: The Male Reproductive System
[1]6.1.6

What is protobiogenesis?

Chapter: [7.01] Origin and the Evolution of Life
Concept: Origin of Life
[2]6.2

Sketch and label the structure of Malpighian body.

Chapter: [10.02] Excretion and Osmoregulation
Concept: Regulation of Kidney Function
[4]6.3 | Attempt any TWO of the following
[2]6.3.1

Give reason – ‘Archaeopteryx is called connecting link between reptiles and birds’.

Chapter: [9.02] Animal Husbandry
Concept: Animal Husbandry
[2]6.3.2

Summarise the process of vaccine production

Chapter: [9.01] Human Health and Diseases
Concept: Concept of Immunity
[2]6.3.3

Write a short note on ‘lac culture’.

Chapter: [9.02] Animal Husbandry
Concept: Animal Husbandry
[2]6.3.4

Define the following term and give one example for each:

Commensalism

Chapter: [12.01] Organisms and Environment 2
Concept: Population - Population Interactions
[9]7
[6]7.1 | Attempt any TWO of the following:
[3]7.1.1

Explain the types of chromosomes on the basis of position of centromere.

Chapter: [7.02] Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
Concept: Inheritance of Two Genes - Chromosome Theory of Inheritance
[3]7.1.2

Give the symptoms of typhoid fever and draw a labelled diagram of its causal organism.

Chapter: [9.01] Human Health and Diseases
Concept: Introduction of Human Health and Diseases
[3]7.1.3

With the help of suitable diagrams, explain how the age structures determine the trend of population.

Chapter: [12.01] Organisms and Environment 2
Concept: Population and Ecological Adaptations
[3]7.2

Describe the T. S. of thyroid gland

Chapter: [10.03] Control and Co-ordination
Concept: Endocrine Glands and Hormones
[7]8 | attempt any one of the following
[7]8.1

Describe the T.S. of human testis

Chapter: [11.01] Human Reproduction
Concept: Microscopic Anatomy of Testis

What is spermatogenesis? Briefly describe the process of spermatogenesis.

Chapter: [11.01] Human Reproduction
Concept: Gametogenesis
[7]8.2

With the help of a labelled diagram describe the internal structure of human heart.

Chapter: [10.01] Circulation
Concept: Circulatory Pathways - Human Circulatory System
S