The Lingayats disapproved certain practices of the Dharmashashtras. City any two such practices.
Name the region where the Lottery Committee initiated town planning during the 18th century. Mention any one feature of it.
Why were the water resources of the Vijayanagara Empire developed? Give reasons.
Examine the policies adopted by the British towards the Paharis during early 18th century in Bengal.
Historians have used a variety of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. State any four such sources.
Read of the following passage and answer the question that follows :
Dr. Khushdeva Singh describes his work as "humble efforts I made to discharge my duty as a human being to fellow human beings." "Love is stronger than hate."
a. How true is this value which was proved at the time of the partition of India? What are the values one needs to instil and nurture to avoid hatred? Explain.
"The Salt March of 1930 was the first event that brought Mahatma Gandhi to world attention." Explain the significance of this movement for Swaraj.
"The architecture in colonial Bombay represented ideas of imperial power, nationalism and religious glory." Support the statement with examples.
“Proper” social roles
"Proper" social roles Here is a story from the Atli Pan'an of the Malmbharata : Once Drona, a Brahmana who taught archery to the Kuru princes, Was approached by Ekalavya, a forestdwelling nishada (a hunting community). When Drona, who knew the dhartna, refused to have him as his pupil, Ekalavya returned to the forest, prepared au image of Drona out of clay, and treating it as his teacher, began to practise on his own. In due course, he acquired great skill in archery. One day, the Kuru princes went, hunting and their dog, wandering in the woods, came upon Ekalavya. When the dog smelt the dark nishada wrapped in black deer skin, his body caked with dirt, it began to bark. Annoyed, Ekalavya shot seven arrows into its mouth. When the dog returned to the Pandavas, they were amazed at this superb display of archery. They tracked down Ekalavya, who introduced himself as a pupil of Drona. Drona had once told his favourite student Arjuna, that he would be unrivalled amongst his pupils. Arjuna now reminded Drona about this. Drona approached Ekalavya, who immediately acknowledged and honeyed him as his teacher. When Drona demanded his right thumb as his fee, Ekalavya unhesitatingly cut it off and offered it. But thereafter, when he shot with his remaining fingers, he was no longer as fast as he had been before. Thus, Drona kept his word : no one was better than Arjuna.
- Why did Drona refuse to have Ekalavya as his pupil?
- How did Ekalavya react to the demand of his Guru?
- Mention two versions of Guru-Shishya Parampara mentioned in the given extract.
The child sati
This is perhaps one of the most poignant descriptions by Bernier :
At Lahore, I saw a most beautiful young widow sacrificed, who could not, I think, have been more than twelve years of age. The poor little creature appeared more dead than alive when she approached the dreadful pit : the agony of her mind cannot be described; she trembled and wept bitterly; but three or four of the Brahmanas, assisted by an old woman who held her under the arm, forced the unwilling victim toward the fatal spot, seated her on the wood, tied her hands and feet, lest she should run away, and in that situation the innocent creature was burnt alive. I found it difficult to repress my feelings and to prevent their bursting forth into clamorous and unavailing rage.
- Why did Bernier consider this treatment as a crucial marker of the difference between western and eastern societies?
- What role did the Indian patriarchal society play towards this social evil?
- Compare the condition of the women of the era mentioned above to that of today.
"British element is gone but they have left the mischief behind"
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel said:
It is no use saying that we ask for separate electorates, because it is good for us. We have heard it long enough. We have heard it for years, and as a result of this agitation we are now a separate nation ... Can you show me One free country where there are separate electorates? If so, I shall be prepared to accept it. But in this unfortunate country if this separate electorate is going to be persisted in, even after the division of the country, woe betide the country; it is not worth living in. Therefore, I say, it is not for my good alone, it is for your own good that I say it, forget the past. One day, we may be united ... The British element is gone, but they have left the, mischief behind. We do not want to perpetuate that mischief. (Hear, hear). When the British introduced this element they had not expected that they will have to go so soon. They wanted it for their easy administration. That is all right. But they have left the legacy behind. Are we to get out of it or not?
- why are separate electorates considered as a mischief?
- State the arguments given by Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel for building political unity and forging a nation.
- How did the philosophy of separate electorates result in a separate nation?
On the given political outline map of India (on Page 11), locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
(b) Agra-the capital city of Mughals