Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
1. Air pollution is an issue which concerns us all alike. One can willingly choose or reject a food, a drink or a life comfort, but unfortunately there is little choice for the air we breathe. All, what is there in the air is inhaled by one and all living in those surroundings.
2. Air pollutant is defined as a substance which is present while normally it is not there or present in an amount exceeding the normal concentrations. It could either be gaseous or a particulate matter. The important and harmful polluting gases are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. The common particulate pollutants are the dusts of various inorganic or organic origins. Although we often talk of the outdoor air pollutions caused by industrial and vehicular exhausts, the indoor pollution may prove to be as or a more important cause of health problems.
3. Recognition of air pollution is relatively recent. It is not uncommon to experience a feeling of 'suffocation' in a closed environment. It is often ascribed to the lack of oxygen. Fortunately, however, the composition of air is remarkably constant all over the world. There is about 79 per cent nitrogen and 21 per cent oxygen in the air − the other gases forming a very small fraction. It is true that carbon dioxide exhaled out of lungs may accumulate in a closed and over-crowded place. But such an increase is usually small and temporary unless the room is really air-tight. Exposure to poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide may occur in a closed room, heated by burning coal inside. This may also prove to be fatal.
4. What is more common in a poorly ventilated home is a vague constellation of symptoms described as the sick-building syndrome. It is characterized by a general feeling of malaise, head-ache, dizziness and irritation of mucous membranes. It may also be accompanied by nausea, itching, aches, pains and depression. Sick building syndrome is getting commoner in big cities with the small houses, which are generally over-furnished. Some of the important pollutants whose indoor concentrations exceed those of the outdoors include gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and organic substances like spores, formaldehydes, hydrocarbon aerosols and allergens. The sources are attributed to a variety of construction materials, insulations, furnishings, adhesives, cosmetics, house dusts, fungi and other indoor products.
5. By-products of fuel combustion are important in houses with indoor kitchens. It is not only the brining of dried dung and fuelwood which is responsible, but also kerosene and liquid petroleum gas. Oxides of both nitrogen and sulphur are released from their combustion.
6. Smoking of tobacco in the closed environment is an important source of indoor pollution. It may not be high quantitatively, but significantly hazardous for health. It is because of the fact that there are over 3000 chemical constituents in tobacco smoke, which have been identified. These are harmful for human health.
7. Micro-organisms and allergens are of special significance in the causation and spread of diseases. Most of the infective illnesses may involve more persons of a family living in common indoor environment. These include viral and bacterial diseases like tuberculosis.
8. Besides infections, allergic and hypersensitivity disorders are spreading fast. Although asthma is the most common form of respiratory allergic disorders, pneumonias are not uncommon, but more persistent and serious. These are attributed to exposures to allergens from various fungi, molds, hay and other organic materials. Indoor air ventilation systems, coolers, air-conditioners, dampness, decay, pet animals, production or handling of the causative items are responsible for these hypersensitivity − diseases.
9. Obviously, the spectrum of pollution is very wide and our options are limited. Indoor pollution may be handled relatively easily by an individual. Moreover, the good work must start from one’s own house
(Extracted from the Tribune)
(a) (i) What is an air pollutant? (1)
(ii) In what forms are the air pollutants present? (2)
(iii) Why do we feel suffocated in a closed environment? (1)
(iv) What is sick building syndrome? How is it increasing? (2)
(v) How is indoor smoking very hazardous? (1)
(vi) How can one overcome the dangers of indoor air pollution? (2)
(b) Find the words from the above passage which mean the same as the following: (3)
(i) giddiness (para 4)
(ii) constant (para 8)
(iii) humidity (para 8)
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.
The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.
These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.
In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.
Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.
The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.
The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.
The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.
(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)
(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5)
(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. (3)
You are Smitha/Sunil, Secretary AVM Housing Society. You are going to organize a yoga camp. Write a notice in not more than 50 words, urging the members of your society to come in large numbers to attend the camp. Invent all the necessary details
You are General Manager, Hotel Dosa, Gurgaon. You need a lady Front Office Assistant with sound knowledge of computers. She must be a graduate and good in communication skills with pleasing manners. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words to be published in Gurgaon Times.
Your School, Sea View Public School, Kochi, organized a Blood-donation Camp on the occasion of the Republic Day celebrations. As Cultural Secretary of your school, write a report on the event in 100-125 words.
Traffic police has launched a special drive against pollution causing vehicles. This has led to traffic jams and crowds at important intersections. Write a report in 100-125 words to be published in ‘Chennai Times’. You are Prince/Priya, 12 M.G. Road, Adayar, Chennai.
You have noticed many stray animals on the road during the busy hours of the day. These animals cause traffic jams as well as accidents. You have already written to the concerned authorities but no action has been taken so far. Write a letter to the Editor, The Hindu, drawing attention of the Municipal Commissioner, Chennai. You are Shantha/Suresh, 12 M.G. Road, Chennai.
You are Nalini/Vishal, Hostel Warden, Zenith Public School, Kosikalan. Write a letter to the Sales Manager, Bharat Electronics and Domestic Appliances Limited, New Delhi, placing an order for a few fans, microwave ovens and geysers that you wish to purchase for the hostel. Also ask for the discount permissible on the purchase.
Your family has recently shifted from Kota in Rajasthan to Ernakulam in Kerala, where your house is situated in the midst of beautiful flowering plants and fruit-yielding trees. Every minute and every second, you are experiencing the joy of being in the lap of nature. Write an article in 150-200 words on the diversity of nature that you have experienced. You are Latha/Lalith of Class XII.
Write an article in 150-200 words on the topic, ‘Poverty is the cause of all evils’, to be published in the Young World of ‘The Hindu’, Chennai.
Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Perhaps the Earth can teach us
as when everything seems dead
and later proves to be alive.
Now I’ll count upto twelve
and you keep quiet and I will go.
(i) What does the Earth teach us? (1)
(ii) What does the poet mean to achieve by counting upto twelve? (1)
(iii) What is the significance of ‘keeping quiet’? (1)
A flowery band to bind us to the Earth,
Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth
Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,
Of all the unhealthy and o’er-darkened ways
Made for our searching:
(i) What are we doing everyday? (1)
(ii) Which evil thing do we possess and suffer from? (1)
(iii) What are the circumstances that contribute towards making humans unhappy and disillusioned with life? (1)
Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?
(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?
(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?
(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?
Answer any three of the following questions in 30-40 words each:
(a) What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?
(b) Why does Asokamitran call Subbu, ‘a charitable and improvident man’?
(c) How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimmer?
(d) Why did Sophie like her brother, Geoff more than any other person?
Answer the following in 125-150 words:
What made the American publisher think that the novel, ‘The Name of the Rose’ won’t sell well in America? What actually happened? What was the secret of its success?
How did the peddler feel after robbing the crofter? What course did he adopt and how did he react to the new situation? What does his reaction reveal?
Exploitation is a universal phenomenon. The poor indigo farmers were exploited by the British landlords to which Gandhiji objected. Even after our independence we find exploitation of unorganized labour. What values do we learn from Gandhiji’s campaign to counter the present day problems of exploitation?
Answer the following in 125-150 words:
What is the bond that unites the two − the old Mr. Lamb and Derry, the small boy? How does the old man inspire the small boy?
Do you think Dr. Sadao’s final decision was the best possible one in the circumstances? Why/ Why not? Explain with reference to the story, ‘The Enemy’.
Answer the following in 30-40 words each:
(a) Why do you think the booking clerk refused to accept the money? Why did the narrator get out so fast?
(b) Why could the Russian research vessel, ‘The Akademik Shokaskiy’ not move any further? What did the captain decide then?
(c) What sort of hunts did the Maharaja offer to organize for the high-ranking British officer? What trait of the officer does it reveal?
(d) What did Jo want the wizard to do when Mommy Skunk approached him?