Write the related words as shown in the example: - English (Second/Third Language)

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Write the related words as shown in the example:

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Solution

Concept: Reading Skills
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Chapter 1: Section 1: Language Study - English Activity Set 1

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SCERT Maharashtra Question Bank 10th Standard SSC English Third Language Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1 Section 1: Language Study
English Activity Set 1 | Q 1. (A) 5.

RELATED QUESTIONS

B1. Select
Fill in the blanks choosing the correct alternatives from those given in the bracket:
(i) The author was inspired and motivated to read ............................................ by the time she was eleven.
[Shakespeare, Chaucer, G.B. Shaw]

(ii) Every lesson .......................... ......... took was spiced with half a dozen or more anecdotes.
[Mrs. Rowlands, Sister Monica, Mr. A.N. Patil]

(iii) The teachers helped the narrator to become ..................................... . .
[confident, happy, independent]

(iv) Mrs. Cynthia Nesamani and Sister Monica gave .......................................... to the narrator.
[freedom to do what he wanted, advice to do something, instructions to produce better results]

In a way, one of the greatest gifts any teacher can give a student, I think, is to inculcate a curiosity to learn.
I've been incredibly lucky to have at least one such teacher at every stage in my life. The first was Mrs. Rowlands who taught me in primary school. She taught me to read without ever pushing me. She made me want to read more by giving 'me some of the most interesting children's books available. And although I still love to go back to those books from time to time, it was only because of her that I was able to read Shakespeare by the time I was ten, and Chaucer a year later.
In later years, it was Mr. A.N. Patil, my Marathi and Hindi Teacher who made a huge impression on me. Every lesson he took, was spiced with half a dozen or more anecdotes from a wide variety of subjects: among them history, politics, religion and sociology. I was, and still am in awe of his knowledge, which despite rather desperate attempts, I doubt I'll ever be able to match.
There have also been other teachers who helped me to try to become independent: to think and act for myself using my own judgement, which to my mind has been just as, if not more important, than actually learning anything.
After all, it's much too easy to become a completely useless repository of facts and little else.
Two teachers whom I remember in particular are Mrs. Cynthia Nesamani and Sister Monica, both taught me in school. The former, by and large, gave me a free rein to do what I wanted to do. I, being one of those people who dislike instructions, she helped me to produce much better results than I'd have otherwise done.

B2.Complete
Read the extract and complete the following:
The teacher can
(i) .............
(ii) ..............
(iii )..............
(iv).................

B3. Similar word
Look at the following sentences arid pick the word having similar meaning to the given word and rewrite:
(i) Spiced His conversation is always with a lot of humour. (made interesting, garnished, flavoured)
(ii) Repository
The library should not merely be a ................ of books. (store-house, reservoir, tank)
(iii) Inculcate
It is the responsibility of the parents and teachers to .......values in the child's formative years. (imbibe, give, show)
(iv) Incredibly
I have been .. lucky to have at least one such teacher at every stage in my life. (importantly, unbelievably, beautifully)

B4. Language study
(i) There have also been other teachers. They have helped me to try to become
independent. (Combine using 'who')
(ii) It was only because of her that I was able-to read Shakespeare.
(Rewrite beginning with: If it was not for her, ). 

B.5 Out motivators
Look at the following table and complete it by presenting your own views

Personalities Influence on your life
(i) Teachers  
(ii) Parents  
(iii) Relatives  
(iv) Friends  

 

 


Life is a gift to be used every day,
Not to be smothered and hidden away,
It isn’t a thing to be stored in the chest
Where you gather your keepsakes and treasure your best;
It isn’t a joy to be sipped now and then
And promptly put back in a dark place again

Life is a gift that the humblest may boast of
And one that the humblest may well make the most of
Get out and live it each hour of the day,
Wear it and use it as much as you may,
Don’t keep it in niches and corners and grooves,
You’ll find that in service its beauty improves.

(1) What do we treasure in a chest?
(2) How does the poet went us to use the gift of life?
(3) Do you agree that life should be measured un deeds and not in years? Why?
(4) Which words in the poem mean the following :
     (a) Kept from developing
     (b) Hollow places in a wall
(5) Life is a gift to be used every day. [Name and explain the figure of speech]

 


Write a character sketch of Mrs. Van Daan.


What were Helen’s memories of Radcliffe?


How did the air raids disrupt the Dutch public life?


It was her determination that helped Helen Keller get admission to Radcliffe College. Comment.


Read the passage carefully.

1. I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

2. Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that 'the enemy' wouldn't discover me.

3. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home ‒ that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn't  let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

4. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn't like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear 'the right clothes' and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

5. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is  being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.

(b) Make a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.


Who was Selden? Why was he on the moor?


Write a character sketch of Mr. Barrymore in about 125 words


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5)

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. (3)


Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?

(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?

(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?


Answer any three of the following questions in 30-40 words each:

(a) What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?

(b) Why does Asokamitran call Subbu, ‘a charitable and improvident man’?

(c) How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimmer?

(d) Why did Sophie like her brother, Geoff more than any other person?


What role did Mr. Gilman play in Helen Keller's life? (120‒150 words)


Helen's statement, "We worked hard and faithfully, yet we did not quite reach our goal" tells us about her failure to achieve the goal at the Wright-Humason School in New York City. What was the goal that she failed to achieve there?


Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

Bring out the importance of the diary in Anne's life.


Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

Why does Anne call herself 'a bundle of contradictions'?


How did Helen display her passion for Radcliffe College?


Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:    

...........On their slag heap, these children
Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel
With mended glass, life bottle bits on stones. 
(a) Name the poem and the poet.
(b) Explain: 'slag heap'.
(c) What future awaits these children?
(d) Name the figure of speech used in the third line.

Answer any four  of the following questions in 30 - 40 words each:      

(a) What does the poet's smile in the poem, 'My Mother at Sixty-six' show?

(b) Listening to them, I see two distinct worlds ... ." In the context of Mukesh, the bangle maker's son, which two worlds is Anees Jung referring to ?

(c) Though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one-fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory?

(d) Which article in McLeery's suitcase played perhaps the most significant role in Evans' escape and how?

(e) Why does Derry’s mother not want him to go back to visit Mr. Lamb?

(f) What considerations influenced the Tiger King to get married?


Answer any four of the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why was the peddler amused at the idea of the world being a rattrap?
(b) Why did Gandhiji agree to a settlement of mere 25 percent?
(c) Aunt Jennifer's efforts to get rid of her fear proved to be futile. Comment.
(d) What does Stephen Spender want to be done for the children of the school in a slum?
(e) How did the ten-day-old baby (the future Tiger King) react to the prediction about his future made by the astrologers?
(f) Why was Dr. Sadao not sent abroad along with the troops?


You are Smitha/Sunil, Secretary AVM Housing Society. You are going to organize a yoga camp. Write a notice in not more than 50 words, urging the members of your society to come in large numbers to attend the camp. Invent all the necessary details.


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

If you do not get lowered in your own eyes
While you raise yourself in those of others,
If you do not give in to gossips and lies
Rather heed them not, saying, 'who bothers?'
You may be the person I am looking for.
If you crave not for praise when you win
And look not for sympathy while you lose,
If cheers let not your head toss or spin
And after a set-back, you offer no excuse,
You may be the person I and looking for.

(1) What should be your reaction towards gossips and lies?
(2) Who are your role models? Why?
(3) Give the rhyming pairs of words from the first stanza.
(4) Which line is repeated in this extract and what is its effect?


Read the follow ing extract and answer the questions given below:

Not gold but only men can make
A people great and strong;
Men who for truth and honor's sake
Stand fast and suffer long.

Brave men who work while others sleep,
Who dare while others fly...

They build a nation's pillars deep
And lift them to the sky.

(1) What makes a nation strong?
(2) According to you, what makes India a strong and powerful nation?.
(3) Write down the rhyme scheme used in the extract.
(4) What does the phrase 'others fly ... ' mean?


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

How do you know
Peace is a woman?
 I know, for
I met her yesterday
on my winding way 
to the world's fare.
She had such a wonderful face
just like a golden flower faded
before her prime.

(1) How does the poet describe the face of peace?
(2) Do you think there is a way out of the war-ridden world? What is it?.
(3) Name and explain the figure of speech in the following line:
"I met her yesterday 
on my winding way."
(4) The poet asks the question and herself answers it. What effect does it create in the extract?


Complete the flow-chart : 


Complete the following table :


(i) The interest of Maharashtra and that of India should be one for the progress of Maharashtra state, because ................

 


Complete the following statements :

(ii) Maharashtra depends on India, because ................

 


Read the following extract and then do all the activities that follow :

I rain into a stranger as he passed by
“Oh, excuse me please” was my reply.
He said, “please excuse me too; wasn't even watching for you.”
We were very polite, this stranger and I.
We went on out way and we said good-bye.
But at home a different story is told.
How we treat out loved ones, young and old.
Later that day, cooking the evening meal,
My daughter stood beside me very still.
When I turned, I nearly knoked her down.
“Move out of the way,” I said with a frown.
She walked away, her little heart broken.
I didn't realize how harshly I'd spoken.
While I lay awake in bed,
God's still small voice came to me and said,
“While Dealing with a stranger, common courtesy you use,
But children you love, you seem to abuse.”

A1. Order- 
The incidents narrated in the extract are arranged in a jumbled manner here, Rearrange them in a proper order as they occur in the extract:
(i) The poet and the stranger went on their way saying good-bye.
(ii) Seeking excuse politely from the stranger, she went her way.
(iii) The poet ran into a stranger on the road.
(iv) The poet yelled at her daughter.

A2. Poetic device:
Make a list of rhyming pairs from the second stanza and note down the rhyme scheme of the same stanza.

A3. Personal Response:
Understanding and politeness are the essentials of out everyday life. Explain your views in brief.

A4. Creativity -
Frame two poetic lines on the following situation using a rhyming pattern with the help of clues given:
“While introducing great personalities, we praise them highly and talk about their qualities, but while speaking
about our friends we may not follow the same trend.”
While introducing great personalities, — a
------------------------------------ — a
But while speaking about our friends, — b
------------------------------------ — b


Read the extract and do the activities that follow:
The duke senior and his follower were sitting down to a meal one day when Orlando rushed out from among the trees, his sword in his hand. ‘Stop, and cat no more!’ he cried. The Duke and his friends asked him what he wanted.
‘Food,’ said Orlando. ‘I am almost dying of hunger’. They asked him to sit down and eat, but he would not do so. He told them that his old servant was in the woods, dying of hunger. ‘I will not eat a bite until he has been fed,’ Orlando said.
So the good Duke and his followers helped him to bring Adam to their hiding-place, and Orlando and the old man were fed and taken care of. When the Duke learned that Orlando was a son of his old friend sir Rowland de Boys, he welcomed him gladly to his forest court.
Orlando lived happily with the Duke and his friends, but he had not forgotten the lovely Rosalind. She was always in his thoughts andevery day he wrote poetry about her pinning it on the trees in the forest. ‘These trees shall be my books,’ he said, ‘so that everyone who looks in the forest will be able to read how sweet and good Rosalind is’.
Rosalind and Celia found some of these poems pinned on the trees. At first they were puzzled, wondering who could have written them; but one day Celia came in from a walk with the news that she had seen Orlando sleeping under a tree, and she and Rosalind guessed that he must be the poet. Rosalind was happy to think that Orlando had not forggoten her, because she loved him as much as he loved her.

A1. Complete - (2)
Complete the following sentences:
(i) Rosalind was happy to think _______
(ii) The Duke and his followers helped Orlando to bring _________
(iii) Orlando pinned the poems written about Rosalind on ______
(iv) When the Duke cam to know that Orlando was a son of his old friend, he _________

A2. Write a gist: (2)
Write a gist of the above given extract in about 50 words.


After the convocation, Mrs. Mini, Rahul’s mother and Rahul have a conversation. Write the conversation and present it to the class in groups of three.


In ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’ how did the Franks and others celebrate two festivals, Hanukkah and St.  Nicholas Day in the Annexe ? 


With reference to ‘The Story of My Life’, describe how a teacher can positively impact a child’s life ? 


Big male elephants throw logs at electric fences because 


What strategy do chimps use to open hard shells and fruits ? 


Give an example from the passage that proves the crow to be an intelligent bird.


How do chimps drink water from the waterholes?


What inference can you draw from the action of the female gorilla described in para 2 ? 


To what end have humans used their superior intelligence ?


(a) crushing/destructive (pars 1)
(b) used to (pare 2)
(c) searching (pare 4)


Attempt a character sketch of Squire Cass. 


Attempt a character sketch of Mrs. Hall.


How did Griffin meet his end ? 


When and how did the people of Iping grow suspicious of the invisible man ? 


Read the following passage and complete the activities given below:

A1. Name the following: With reference to the passage.
(i) Two people who influenced Mashelkar ________.
(ii) The trust which granted a scholarship to Mashelkar _______.
(iii) The Director of the Board of Tata Motors _______.
(iv) Principal Bhave demonstrated _______.
 
In fact, I remember, my passing the SSC Examination – i.e. 11th standard. Those days it used to be not 10th standard or 12th standard but 11th standard. I stood 11th among 1,35,000 but I was about to leave higher education and find a job. What helped me was the scholarship by Sir Dorab Tata Trust. It was just 60 rupees per month and would you believe that 60 rupees per month from Tatas added so much value to my life that I have been able to stand here today before you to speak to you.
I am on the Board of Tatas now and it is very interesting that the same Bombay House where I used to go to collect that 60 rupees per month now one goes and sits there as a Director on the Board of Tata Motors. The turn that these 40 years have taken is very interesting. It has all been possible because of the chance I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother. She gave me the values of my life. She was one of the noblest parents I have met in my life. So, my greatest guru was my mother. My second great guru was Principal Bhave, about whom I made a mention earlier. He taught us Physics. Because it was a poor school, I remember, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of Science. I still remember one of the interesting experiences when, on a Friday afternoon, Principal Bhave took us out into the sun to demonstrate to us how to find the focal length of a convex lens. He had a piece of paper here, a convex lens here and he moved it up and down and there was a point when there were a sharp focus and a bright spot on the paper.
He showed the distance between the paper and the lens and said that this distance was the focal length. But then the paper started burning. For some reason, he then turned to me, and said, “Mashelkar, if you focus your energies like this, you can burn anything in the world.”
 
A2. Supply the information from the passage.
(i) Mashelkar could continue his studies because ________.
(ii) The teaching of Principal Bhave’s experiment was ________.
(iii) Mashelkar considers his mother as the greatest Guru because ________.
(iv) The paper started burning because ________.
 
A3 Word Register (from the passage) 
Prepare a word register for the word Education
 
A4 Modal Auxiliary
(i) I used to go to collect 60 rupees per month.
(Rewrite the sentence using Modal Auxiliary ‘would’)
(ii) Reported Speech:
Principal Bhave said, “Mashelkar if you focus your energies like this, you can burn anything in the world.”
(How will Mashelkar report this to his friend?)
 
A5 Personal Response
What is the role played by our parents in shaping our careers?

Read the passage and complete the activities given below
B1 Complete the table :
A few facts about the Mehendi rituals during marriage ceremonies are given below :
Write them into appropriate columns :
(i) A simple family affair.
(ii) Song and dance performances accompanied by lavish food and entertainment.
(iii) Creative family members, apply Mehendi to the bride.
(iv) Beauticians are appointed to apply Mehendi to the bride.
Fill in the table as :

Yesteryears Present times
(i) (i)
(ii) (ii)

Mehendi enjoys special attention during the wedding. In India, the day before the wedding is devoted exclusively to the elaborate ritual of applying Mehendi on the hands and feet of the bride. This practice is followed in Arab countries as well, except that it is held a few days prior to the wedding day. Songs are woven around the healing properties and lucky omens associated with mehndi are sung by the bride’s family and friends. An age-old belief handed down to generations lays great emphasis on the color of the bride’s Mehendi – a darker color suggests bountiful love and affection from the future in-laws and husband, and for this reason, brides take the pain to ensure that only the best quality henna is used for her wedding day.

The ritual of adorning the bride with henna is a sacred one and in some communities requires the initiation by the mother-in-law. A popular game during marriage function is the search for their names, by the bride and groom hidden within the elaborate pattern on the bride’s hands.

In certain parts of India, the bridegroom has his hands decorated with henna. The Mehendi function during marriages has evolved from simple family affairs of yesteryears to elaborate events of today. A lavish spread of food and entertainment in the form of song and dance performances have transformed it from a small function to a gala prelude. In earlier days, the task of applying Mehendi on the bride was the sole prerogative of creative family members. The demand for intricate and different style now, sees this job outsourced to beauticians skilled in this art. Beauty salons charge according to the style and complexity of pattern desired by the clients.

B2 What is the age-old belief related to the bride’s Mehendi color and its significance?

B3 Find the words :

Find the words from the passage :

The first letter of each word is given as a clue :
(i) Nowadays a lot of e .......... is given to the use of Information Technology in school.
(ii) Temples and mosques exhibit i .......... carving on their walls.
(iii) The minister announced the i .......... of the National Polio Eradication Programme.
(iv) Villages have t .......... to towns.
 
B4 Complete the table : 
Noun Verd Adjectives
(i) attention attend _______________
(ii) creation _________________ creative
Select any one word and use it meaningfully in a sentence of your own.
 
B5 Personal Response :
A lot of money is spent nowadays on marriage ceremonies. What is your opinion about it? 

Read the following extract carefully and complete the activities given below :
A1 Complete the following : 
(i)
Books were found on the _____________ and ____________.
(ii) The tales are described as ______________ and __________.

 

Have you forgotten? Don't you know?
We'll say it very loud and slow:
THEY ... USED ... TO ... READ! They'd READ and READ,
AND READ and READ, and then proceed
To READ some more. Great Scott! Gadzooks!
One-half of their lives was reading books!
The nursery shelves held books galore!
Books cluttered up the nursery floor!
And in the bedroom, by the bed,
More books were waiting to be read!
Such wondrous, fine, fantastic tales
Of dragons, gypsies, queens, and whales
And treasure isles, and distant shores
Where smugglers rowed with muffled oars,
And pirates wearing purple pants,
And sailing ships and elephants,
And cannibals crouching 'round the pot,
Stirring away at something hot.
(It smells so good, what can it be?
Good gracious, it's Penelope.)
 
A2  What kind of books does the poet mention?

A3  Poetic Device :
THEY ... USED ... TO ... READ! They'd READ and READ,
AND READ and READ, and then proceed
Which words are repeated?

The figure of speech is _______________

Read the following passage and do the activities:
A1 True or False:
Rewrite the following statements and state whether they are ‘true’ or ‘false’.
(i) Mashelkar’s mother did menial work to bring him up.
(ii) Mashelkar’s father died when he was twelve.
(iii) Mashelkar was born in a very rich family.
(iv) Tatas added much value to Mashelkar’s life. 

I start with my greatest guru-my mother. I was born in a very poor family and my father died when I was six. We moved to Mumbai and my mother did menial work to bring me up. Two meals a day was a tough challenge. I studied under street lights and I walked barefoot until, I think, I was twelve. I remember when I passed the seventh standard and I wanted to go into the eighth standard, our poverty was such that even to secure 21 rupees for secondary school admission became a big challenge. We had to borrow from a lady, who was a housemaid in Chaupati in Mumbai. That was the tough life I had.

In fact, I remember, my passing the SSC Examination-i.e. 11th standard. Those days it used to be not 10th standard or 12th standard but 11th standard. I stood 11th among 1,35,000 but I was about to leave higher education and find a job. What helped me was the scholarship by Sir Dorab Tata Trust. It was just 60 rupees per month and would you believe that 60 rupees per month from Tatas added so much value to my life that I have been able to stand here today before you to speak to you.

 I am on the Board of Tatas now and it is very interesting that the same Bombay House where I used to go to collect that 60 rupees per month now one goes and sits there like a Director on the Board of Tata Motors. The turn that these 40 years have taken is very interesting. It has all been possible because of the chance I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother. She gave me the values of my life. She was one of the noblest parents I have met in my life.

So, my greatest guru was my mother. My second guru was Principal Bhave, about whom I made a mention earlier. He taught us Physics. Because it was a poor school, I remember, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of Science. 

A2  Complete: 
 Complete the following sentences and write:
(i) Mashelkar was inspired by his greatest guru _______
(ii) Mashelkar studied under _______
(iii) Principal Bhave taught _______
(iv) The scholarship by _______ Trust helped him in higher education. 

A3 Find the meaning:
Choose the appropriate meaning of the underlined words from the given alternatives:
(i)
We moved to Mumbai and my mother did menial work.
(a) skilled
(b) hard
(c) unskilled
(d) of low status

(ii) Because it was a poor school, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of science.
(a) do a cheap experiment
(b) introduce new things
(c) avoid
(d) try hard

(iii) I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother.
(a) firm saying
(b) being inspired
(c) being inspected
(d) being instigated 

(iv) That was the tough life I had.
(a) difficult
(b) soft
(c) cheap
(d) simple 

A4  Match:
Match the following sentences with their tags: 

  'A'   'B'
(i) I stood 11th 
 among 1,35,000 
(a) aren’t I? 
(ii) I am on the Board of Tatas  (b)  didn’t we? 
(iii) It was a poor school  (c) didn’t I? 
(iv) We moved to Mumbai  (d)  wasn’t it? 

A5  Personal Response: 
 “Mother is the greatest Guru.” Discuss.


 A1 Web :
Complete the following web with the help of the passage : 

My dictionary tells me that personality is the “Personal or individual quality that makes one person be different and act differently from another.” Personality is, “the total physical, intellectual and emotional structure of an individual, including abilities, interests, and attitudes.”
 There are many benefits to having a pleasant personality. There is only one opportunity to make a first impression, and all of us instinctively make decisions or judgments about an individual within the first few seconds of crossing paths. With that in mind, I believe when we teach our kids to smile, to be pleasant and cheerful, to be courteous and respectful of others, to pleasantly respond to requests or questions, we are helping them develop a personality that will open many doors for them. Once the doors are opened, the character will keep them open; but personality, not character, is on display in the first few seconds. Therefore, it’s important to develop a pleasant personality and use it for life. 

A2  Personality :
 Personality of an individual is recognized by : 
(i)
_______          (ii) _______
(iii) _______       (iv) _______ 

A3 Vocabulary :
Find out words for the following from the passage and write:
(i)
polite =
(ii) relating to feelings =
(iii) to do anything naturally without thinking =
(iv) a chance to do something = 

A4 Complete the following table : 

Noun Adjective Adverb
different differently
Instinct instinctively

Select any word from the table and use it meaningfully in a sentence of your own. 

A5 Personal Response :
Why do you thing, personality development is necessary? 


Read the following passage carefully and do the given activities:
A.1) True or False:

Write the statements and state whether they are true or false:
(i)
Those who choose to live well must help others.
(ii)
If neighbors grow inferior corn, cross-pollination will steadily improve the quality.
(iii)
The farmer grew award-winning corn.
(iv)
The reporter discovered that the farmer didn’t share his seed corn with his neighbors. 

             There once was a farmer who grew award-winning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it. The reporter discovered that the farmer shared his sweet corn with his neighbors. “How can you afford to share your best seed corn with your neighbors when they are entering corn in competition with yours each year?” the reporter asked. 
             “Why sir”, said the farmer, “didn’t you know? The wind picks up pollen from the ripening corn and swirls it from field to field. If my neighbors grow inferior corn, cross-pollination will steadily degrade the quality of my corn. If I am to grow good corn, I must help my neighbors grow good corn.” He is very much aware of the connectedness of life. His corn cannot improve unless his neighbor's corn also improves. So it is with our lives. Those who choose to live in peace must help their neighbors to live in peace. Those who choose to live well must help others to live well, for the value of a life is measured by the lives it touches.
              The lesson for each of us is this: if we are to grow good corn, we must help our neighbors grow good corn. 

A.2) Consequences:
Write the consequences:
(i) The farmer shares the corn. 
(ii) The farmer doesn’t share the corn. 

A.3) Antonyms:
Find out the words opposite in meaning from the passage: 
(i)
superior x _______ 
(ii)
lost x _______ 
(iii)
improve x _______ 
(iv)
inconstantly x _______ 

A.4)  Language study:
(i)
We must help our neighbors. (Replace the modal auxiliary showing advice). 
(ii) The wind picks up pollen from ripening corn and swirls it field to field. (Use “not only…….. but also” and rewrite)

A.5)  Personal Response: 
What do you learn from the story? Suggest a suitable title.


Read the following passage and do the given activities: 
B.1) Comparison
Write the comparison between the parts of the modular phone and the human body: 

Modular Phone Parts of Human Body 
   

            Every phone you buy, no matter how costly and latest it is, will go out of date in a year or so. That’s how quickly the smartphone world is moving right now. To keep yourself up to date with the current specification you will have to keep switching phones every once a while. What’s the solution to this problem?
                                                         MODULAR PHONES! 
               A modular device is a phone, tablet or another device where individual components such as the screen, camera, CPU, battery, memory can be removed by the user and replaced by others with a different specification. Imagine your body to be your phone and your clothes as the components, you can wear anything according to your needs and moods. Similarly, modular phones let you choose between components of different properties and specifications.
              This would mean we’ll have the liberty to customize our phones, just like Lego building blocks! The main components of the phone will be Brain (processor), Spine (frame, screen) and Heart (battery). The other components may include a camera, storage memory, GPS, audio jack, speakers, USB module, etc. and the phone will have a motherboard, i.e. a base that will hold all components together

B.2) Give examples:
Write two examples that give the liberty to customize our phone. 
•   ____________________
•   ____________________

B.3) Framing sentence:
Use the given phrases in sentences of your own:

(i) up to date
(ii) once a while 

B.4) Write as instructed:
Rewrite the sentence as interrogative:
(i) We’ll have the liberty to customize our phones.
(ii) We will have the liberty to customize our phones.   (Rewrite using the present participle form of the underlined word) 

B.5) Personal Response
If given a chance to design a modular phone, what new features would you add? 


Complete the call-outs:
A.1)

Our world is an institution
Of environmental pollution
We choose not to care
For our future generations
And I for one am guilty
For buying the hundreds of electronic gadgets
That attracts the industries to produce like maggots
environmental pollution is at the heart of our planet
The forests are dying
Wildlife is crying
Millions of fish are dying
Mother earth is sighing
Tell me is it right
That we sleep well at night
Replenishing ourselves
For tomorrow’s greedy fight
Overcrowded trains
Overloaded brains
Where is the light? What is our plight?
While the river break their banks
And greedy industries play their polluted pranks.

 

A.2) Find the examples that show that we do not care for our future generation

A.3) Match:
Match the lines in Column ‘A’ with the figures of speech in Column ‘B’: 

  Column ‘A’    Column ‘B’ 
(i) Our world is an institution  (a)  Personification 

(ii) Mother earth is sighing (b)  Simile
    (c) Metaphor

Answer the following in 200-250 words :
Describe Ms. Sullivan's teaching methods?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
How did Kitty help Anne overcome her loneliness?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
What is the main theme of 'The Diary of a Young Girl'?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
"The best and most beautiful things in the world can't be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart." Justify the famous quote of Helen Keller.


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
Helen had a great love for animals and birds. Write about this aspect of her character.


Answer the following question in 150-200 words:  
How did Miss Sullivan help Helen Keller when she was studying at Cambridge School?


Answer the following question in 150-200 words:
Attempt a character sketch of Mr. Gilman.


Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

  • the thought was almost revolting

  • an expanse of pure white serenity

  • a turning-point

  • accepted her seclusion with resignation

  • a veritable bedlam of chirrupings

  • frivolous rebukes

  • the sagging skins of the dilapidated drum


Have you known someone like the author’s grandmother? Do you feel the same sense of loss with regard to someone whom you have loved and lost?


Which language do you use to talk to elderly relatives in your family?


What is the meaning of the line “Both wry with the laboured ease of loss”.


Describe the shifts in the narration of the events as indicated in the three sections of the text. Give a subtitle to each section.


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
ducking back


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
manoeuvres


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
careered down


Give reasons for the following statement.
The author was disappointed with Darchen.


Briefly comment on:
The author’s meeting with Norbu.


Discuss in groups of four.
The reasons why people willingly undergo the travails of difficult journeys.


Guess the meaning of the following word:
Drokba
In which language are these word found? 


Underline the important words and phrases.


Number the points.


Look for pictures in newspapers and magazines that depict the urban civic problems discussed in the text. Cut them out and pin them to the text at appropriate places.


Put down the images that come to your mind immediately when you see the words in the box.

Cat   cupboard   wall   pond   bird

Look for a story, a poem and a newspaper article on environment conservation and see how the style of each is different from the other.


Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

  • blow-by-blow account

  • morale booster

  • relegated to

  • political acumen

  • de facto

  • astute

  • doctored accounts

  • gave vent to


In which language do you think Bhausahebanchi Bakhar was written?


There is mention of three communities in the story: the Marathas, the Mughals, the Anglo-Indians. Which language do you think they used within their communities and while speaking to the other groups?


Indian society has moved a long way from the way the marriage is arranged in the story. Discuss.


Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrase.

to be wound up


Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrase.

to meet one's match


How do you distinguish between information gathering and insight formation?


Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid?


This play, written in the 1950s, is a humorous and satirical depiction of the status of the mother in the family.
 What are the issues it raises?


Is drama a good medium for conveying a social message? Discuss.


Discuss in groups plays or films with a strong message of social reform that you have watched.


“I have done something; oh, God! I've done something real at last.” Why does Andrew say this? What does it mean?


There lies a great difference between text book medicine and the world of practising physician. Discuss.


Narrate 'The Tale of Melon City' in your own words.


Although Paul's mother liked to be rich she did not approve of betting on horses.


Examine the communication channels in the story between Paul and Bassett.


Examine the communication channels in the story between Paul and his uncle.


Explain the line:
Within a week it sickened to a raging fever and its pulse went up to a hundred and fifty in the shade.


'The author's treatment of the subject matter makes the readers identify themselves with the experience.' Comment on the statement.


How does Russell's definition of knowledge differ from what is commonly understood by the term?


Why is the quality of pity earth-bound while the other two passions are elevating?


'Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world'.


'On reading Shelley's A Defence of Poetry, the question insistently occurs why there is no similar A Defence of Science written of equal endowment.'


Explain the contradiction in the similies, ‘Like a child from the womb, like a ghost from the tomb’.


Discuss the following in pairs or in groups of four:
“Tribal arts are not specifically meant for sale.” Does this help or hamper their growth and preservation?


Adi Song for the Recovery of Lost Health' is in Miri Agom while Adi Agom is the Adi community's language for routine conversation. How does this reflect upon the high level of language sensitivity of the Adi? Can you think of other parallels in modern languages between the literary variety and the colloquial variety?


Comment on the symbols used in ‘A Munda Song’. What aspect of the tribal worldview do they reflect?


What is the emphasis placed by Ruskin on accuracy?


Notice these expressions in the poem and guess their meaning from the context:

rancid breath squelching tar
spectroscopic flight of fancy
rearing on the thunderclap brunette
peroxide blonde clinical assent
raven black

You know what ‘hide-and-seek’ is. What would ‘hide-and-speak’ mean?


Why do you think that the poet has chosen the title ‘Telephone Conversation’? If you were to suggest another title for the poem, what would it be?


The power of poetry lies in suggestion and understatement. Discuss this with reference to the poem.


Study each of the following sentences and notice the balance between its parts. Pick out other sentences in the text that reflect this kind of balance
a. It is right that a false Latin quantity should excite a smile in the House of Commons; but it is wrong that a false English meaning should not excite a frown there.
b. Let the accent of words be watched, by all means, but let the meaning be watched more closely still, and fewer will do the work.


What do you understand of the three voices in response to the question 'What does a novel do' ?


Personification is a figure of speech that attributes human qualities to inanimate things and abstract ideas. How has it been used in the poem?


Comment on the physical features of the hawk highlighted in the poem and their significance.


Comment on the capitalisation of all the words in the line:

'Children Must be Disciplined'.


Try rewriting the lecture as a formal essay and examine Forster’s statement:  'since the novel is itself often colloquial, it may possibly withhold some of its secrets from the graver and grander streams of criticism’.


The title, 'Refugee Blues' encapsulates the theme of the poem. Comment.


How is the essence of the poem captured in the lines 'two tickets to Happiness'?


Identify the lines that reveal the critical tone of the poet towards the felling of the tree.


How does the banyan tree stand out as different from other trees? What details of the tree does the poet highlight in the poem?


Why did Ajamil refuse to meet the sheepdog's eyes?


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I wish to be friends with someone but my friendship is rejected.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

Someone has extended a hand of friendship towards me and I have not accepted it.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a large group of friends but no best buddy.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

Jo swept a path around the garden for ________________.


Give a brief account of the interaction between Grandpa and Jo.


What strong qualities possessed by them, could have helped them achieve success and fame, all over?


Find from the story one word for the following.

a very narrow passage between buildings ____________


Find from the story one word for the following.

a low constant sound made by cats ____________


Make sentence of your own using the following expression.

overcome:


Make groups and discuss the following:

Name a few scientists/explorers/social reformers/inventors/discoverers, who spent most of their lives to find solutions to some major problems/setbacks, that mankind faced.


Go through the text again and find the reasons that forced Peter to shoot down a person.

  1. The keepers spotted him.
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________

The best punishment is ‘forgiveness’. Discuss the sentence in light of the text you have read. You can make use of the following points.

(a) Forgiveness provides an opportunity to change the behaviour.

(b) Forgiveness leads to repentance.

(c) A person may commit a mistake/crime impulsively or under the force of strong emotions.

(d) ________________________

(e) ________________________


Make a list of the preparations made for an assault on Tiger Hill.

Individual guns ___________.


Think and answer in your own words in your notebook.

Why do you think God created worms? What is their ecological importance?


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The cherry tree did not take long to grow.


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The poet was exalted at the sight of the cherry tree.


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The poet repents planting the cherry tree.


The cherry tree has inspired the poet to compose the poem. Such poems, describing Nature or aspects of Nature are called ‘Nature poems’. Find out some expressions from the poem that bring out the elements of the beauty of Nature.


Make a list of words related to agriculture.


Discuss the activities carried out by a farmer.


When we look at the sky, we find several objects. They stand for something or the other. Complete the following table by finding the significance of the given objects. One example is given to you.

Celestial Bodies Association
The Sun Power, Heat, Energy, Commitment, etc.
The Moon  
The Rainbow  
The Stars  

The poem expresses feelings of serenity. Pick out expressions from the above poem that express the same.


A bridge connects people on either side of a river or valleys in cities or villages. Discuss with your partner the importance of a bridge to both the cities and the villages and complete the table.

Cities Villages
   
   
   

Building a bridge needs careful planning. Think about what goes on before the actual construction begins.

  • Proper planning
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________

The poem is a Petrarchan Sonnet. The poem is divided into two parts -

  1. An Octave
    The first part comprising eight lines.
  2. A sestet
    The second part comprising six lines.

Read the first four lines of the poem. The rhyme scheme is a b b a. Read the rhyme scheme for the next four lines. It is a b b a. Now read the first three lines of the sestet and note the rhyme scheme. It is c d c. The rhyme scheme of the last three lines is d c d. This is the common design of a Petrarchan Sonnet.

This is a Petrarchan Sonnet. Complete the given table by giving examples from the poem.

Features Examples / Lines
Objects used  
Praise/blames  
Metaphor  
Simile  
Personification  
Number of lines  
Rhyme scheme  

Given below are some words from legal terminology used in court affairs. Discuss and complete the table accordingly.

Sr. No Legal Terminology Description
1. Affidavit A written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation for use as evidence in court.
2. Argument  
3. Consent  
4. Counsel  
5. Judgement  
6. Trial  
7. Verdict  
8. Contempt of Court  
9. Notice  
10. Stay order  

The tongue justifies the possession of the spectacles on behalf of the nose. Pick up the expressions from the poem that argues in favour of the Nose and complete the following web diagram.


Justify the verdict delivered in the poem.

I can support my answer with the help of the following suitable arguments:

  1. _______________________
  2. _______________________
  3. _______________________

Write any five illnesses of the animals in the poem, that you find most amusing/laughable.


Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

Planners make their plans mathematically perfect, at the same time they calculate their profit.


Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

Planners paint beautiful pictures of the upcoming changes in the city that charm the citizens.


Pick out the statements which aptly depict the theme of the poem.

  1. In the poem, the speaker memorises the past.
  2. In ‘The Planners’ the poet describes the unstoppable force of modernisation.
  3. The poet talks about the replacement of natural environment by the concrete jungle.
  4. The poet proposes to stop modernisation.
  5. The poet laments helplessly.

Select a season of your choice and give the following details:

  1. Time of the year -
  2. Characteristics- crops, festivals, etc.
  3. Features/changes - climate/weather/temperature etc.
  4. Advantages/Disadvantages -

Expansion of Idea:

Expand the following idea in about 100-150 words by using the points.

'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'.

  • Meaning of the proverb
  • Significance of the proverb
  • Add your own points.

Honey-bees live an organized life like human beings. Discuss what work the following honey-bees do, as per the poem. Write it down in your own words, in your notebook.

  1. King/Emperor bee
  2. Mason bees
  3. Magistrate bees
  4. Civilian bees
  5. Merchant bees
  6. Porter bees
  7. Soldier bees
  8. Judge bee

Go through the text again to understand the important features of blogs. Discuss various blogs and their features with your friends.

A blog helps us to express our - ___________.

  • Feelings
  • _________
  • _________
  • _________

We all know that blogs can be written on many topics. Your teacher will divide the class into groups and assign a task to every group to make a list of various topics on which blogs are normally written. One is given to you.

  • Social Awareness
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • ________________

You will come across many blogs written by famous personalities on different topics and issues. Read and make a list of at least ten blogs available on the internet. Read and summarise a blog and present it before the class.

Sr.No. The topic of the Blog Name of the Blogger
1. Don’t teach kids how to read, teach them why. (https://www.teachthought.com/literacy stop-teaching-kids-how-to-read-reading-practice/) Terry Heick
2.    
3.    
4.    
5.    

Discuss orally in your class.

In what subjects is knowledge of mathematics used, at the school level, and college/university level. Name them.

Did you know maths is used in music and poetry also? Can you tell how?


Answer the following question in short.

What punishment did the emperor threaten the Pundits with?


List all the words specially used in the game of Kabaddi.


From the internet or other sources, find the other names by which Kabaddi is known in different parts of our country and the world.


Discuss with your teacher how/why are ‘stars’ given to a movie.


Read the following sentence carefully and choose the correct meaning.

Fine feathers don’t make fine birds.


Read the given words and share with your friend what comes to your mind.



Go through the following web that highlights the essential qualities of a compere. Discuss with your partner the essential qualities and also the precautions that a compere should take while compering a program.

Precautions to be taken :

  1. __________________________
  2. __________________________
  3. __________________________
  4. __________________________

Imagine that you wish to organize a cultural event at your college. Prepare your own web-chart to indicate the qualities that you expect to have in a compere.


List the four elements of drama.


State a type of drama each from any four periods of history.


Differentiate between characters and characterization.


Comment on the given statement after reading the given dialogue -

And if we get him itself, nothing but abuse on our heads for it from the people, and maybe from our own relations -

you may begin like this

We do not think about society at large _________________________________________________.


Comment on the given statement after reading the given dialogue -

It’s a pity some honest man not to be better of that ________________________________________________.


Comment on the given statement after reading the given dialogue - 

But when I saw a man in trouble, I could never help trying to set him out of it.

Its human to help others. Here the statement tells us that ____________________________.


Match the columns :

A B
(1) Theseus (1) Robin Goodfellow
(2) Titania (2) Queen of the Amazons
(3) Puck (3) Duke of Athens
(4) Hippolyta (4) Faeries
(5) Cobweb, Moth (5) Queen of the Faeries

Correct the given sentence with justification.

The play is restricted to only a part of the woods.


Correct the given sentence with justification.

Since there is a reference to the Indian boy, there are some scenes from India too.


There were some reasons why Theseus was initially against but later gave consent for the marriage of Helena with Lysander. Explain.


Write a short note on the following :

The living world on Rakata


Shakespeare’s poetry has come to be valued for its own sake on the stage. Comment with reference to the play ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream.’


Read the given extract (Act III)

Match column A with column B.

Sr.No. A B
1. Dr. Thomas Stockmann Opportunist
2. Katherine Vulnerable
3. Peter Stockmann Honest and upright
4. Petra Coward
5. Hovstad timid but supportive
6. Billing Cuinng and corrupt
7. Aslaksen Courageous

Explain the use of the following property in the development of the play.

Stick


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

And then, once the ring's broken, we'll get to work and show the public every day just how incompetent the Mayor is!


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

From now on The Herald shall be my artillery.


Discuss the following questions after you have seen a presentation of the ‘ad’.

Will you love your brother or sister only if she’s fair?


Read aloud/Enact the play.


Complete the following using your own ideas:

  1. His head was too big to hold his neck.
  2. He was too shy to ____________. 
  3. She was too proud to ____________ .
  4. They were too tired to ____________.
  5. We are too busy to _________________ . 
  6. He was too lazy to __________________ .

Write the following in short:

The events at the court.


Form groups of five and discuss:
There are many things that seem small, minor, or insignificant to some people but the same may be the cause of great pain, suffering for others. Can you list such things? What can you do to provide help on those occasions?


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Look, here’s something for you.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Why, the dress you go to the theatre in !”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“I would rather not go to the party.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Would you lend me this, just this?”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“What! ... how ! ... That’s impossible! ”


Complete the following table.

No. Utterance Who said it To whom When
(a) I touched it in the hall at the ministry. ___________ ___________ ___________
(b) It will give us time to look some more. ___________ ___________ ___________
(c) I might have needed it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(d) You must have made a mistake ___________ ___________ ___________
(e) Well, I lost it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(f) Mine was an imitation. ___________ ___________  ___________

Write five words each -

  1. with the suffix -less -ly -
  2. with the prefix un- in

Write about Malti and Rima using the following points:

  Malti Rima
Appearance    
Studies    
Singing    
Attitude to others    
Weak points    

Think and answer:

Is the poet talking about heavy rains in the rainy season or rain that has come after a long time?


Correct the following sentence using facts from the passage.

Achilles was killed by an arrow that pierced his heart.


Say whether the following statement is right or wrong.

Many changes had occurred on the earth in the hundred years before Sayali’s trip to the moon.


Explain the use of the following property in the development of the play.

An envelope containing the letter


Describe a crocodile in your own words.


What do you like better - the original poem or the parody? Why?


Observe the picture and the labels carefully. Then match the words and the meanings given in the following table.

Words Meaning
1. yard (a) a floor, flat area built on a ship
2. mast (b) the forward part of the main body of a ship
3. bow (c) the forward part of a deck
4. deck (d) tall, upright pole on a ship
5. forecastle (e) a pole slung across a ship’s mast. A sail hangs from a yard.
6. starboard (f) the rearmost (back) part of a ship
7. stern (g) the part which is always at the front while the ship is sailing.
8. afterdeck (h) the right-hand side of a ship as one faces forward
9. fore (i) an open deck near the back

In the last stanza, there are three four-letter words that refer to a beautiful valley.
They are:


Choose the appropriate phrase to insert in the gaps, to make the sentence meaningful. Use the appropriate form of the verb.

After I took the medicine, I____________,____________the pain.


Read the poem again. Does it have a uniform rhyme scheme throughout?

Write down the rhyme scheme of every stanza separately.

  • 1st stanza ______
  • 2nd stanza ______
  • 3rd stanza ______
  • 4th stanza ______.

Write the symbol that is used in the poem to represent the following idea.

Some other time.


Write your own impressions about the news items given in (a), (b), (c), and (d) in the table below.

News item Good news Bad news Reliable Unreliable Interesting Uninteresting Boring Others
(a)        
(b)        
(c)        
(d)        

Be a poet. Try to complete the following poem with words that rhyme with each other.

I’d love to live a life that’s ,____________
Relax under a shady t ____________
And fall into a dreamy s ____________ p,
With no strict hours, forced to k____________
And sing aloud a merry____________ ,
Untrodden paths, as I walk a ____________g.
You ask me what I’d get to____________ ?
Fruits and nuts and berries sw ____________
You ask me with whom I’d get to p ____________
Birds and animals, happy and g____________
And if a woodcutter put a c____________ p
Firmly, I would put a st ____________ 
So that’s the life I’d like l __________ d
Free from worries, free from gr __________ d


‘And calls our Best away’ is a gentle way of expressing the unpleasant idea of a loved one dying. It is an example of euphemism. Think and write down 3 or 4 ways in which we can express the idea of ‘death’ in a tactful and gentle manner.

  1. _________________
  2. _________________
  3. _________________
  4. _________________

Form groups of 6-8. One person (leader) chooses one item - a picture, a paragraph, or a lesson from any one of the 9th standard textbooks and writes the reference on a slip of paper, and folds it. Others ask him/her questions and try to guess what it is, from his/her answers. Follow the rules given below.

  • The maximum number of questions the rest of the group can ask is 20.
  • You cannot ask a direct question like ‘What do you have in mind?’
  • You can ask ‘Wh-’ questions or ‘Yes/no’ questions.
  • The leader has to give truthful answers.

Put the following expressions in a table of Do’s and Dont’s as expressed by the poet.

  1. Please listen.
  2. give me advice
  3. tell me why.
  4. solve my problem
  5. just hear me.
  6. accept as a simple fact.
  7. contribute to my fear
  8. wait a minute.
  Do’s Don’ts
1.    
2.    
3.    

Read the following pieces from the story and suggest a title for each as shown in the 1st one.

  From Up to Title
1. It was a hot afternoon ______ ______ said the aunt weakly. ‘Children Pester their Aunt’
2. The smaller girl created a diversion ______ ______ likely to lose his bet. ______
3. In a low confidential voice ______ ______ it was so stupid,” said Cyril. ______
4. She (Bertha) did all that she was told ______ ______ must be an extra good child. ______
5. The storyteller paused to let ______ ______ popular tunes of the day. ______
6. Bertha was trembling very much ______ ______ the three medals for goodness ______ ______

Say whether you agree or disagree.

The wolf could not trace Bertha because she was behind a myrtle bush.


Say whether you agree or disagree.

The bachelor had narrated an improper story to the children.


Fill in the blank choosing the appropriate word/idiom from the lesson.

The sight of a snake ______.


Name the following.

Ruler of Germany


Read the poem aloud using proper intonation.


Read the word. Write the words that combine to make them.

anywhere


Find two examples of the following from the lesson.

A Command


Discuss the following in group.

What can we do to get rid of bad habits?


Which event in the story tell us that -

the scarecrow was intelligent.


Look at the photographs on textbook pages 60-61 carefully and imagine the following:

  • The colours, shape, size, actions, etc. of what you see in the picture.
  • The sound/sounds you may hear at the scene of the photograph.
  • How the different things, birds, animals, etc. in the picture feel to the touch.
  • The smell / smells you may smell at the scene of the picture.
  • The taste of what you see in the pictures.

Read the following.


What did the Judge tell Ahmad?


Do you long to be something else? Write about your longing.


Guess the meaning of the following word.

finely- 


What happened to the young seagull when it landed on the green sea?


Answer the following question in about 80 – 100 word.

Describe the journey of life as depicted in the poem by Henry Van Dyke.


Identify the character or speaker.

It seems to me like the recollection of a dream.


Identify the character or speaker

He repented and implored his brother’s forgiveness.


Answer the question in a paragraph of about 100 – 150 word.

Narrate how Prospero made his enemies repent to restore his dukedom.


Read the following lines from the poem and answer the question given below.

There's a family nobody likes to meet;
They live, it is said, on Complaining Street

  1. Where does the family live?
  2. Why do you think the street is named as ‘Complaining Street’?

What commotion did the boomerang cause in the neighborhood?


What do Tamil Nadu folk dances and folk arts represent?


How is Karagattam performed?


How were offerings carried during the ancient period?


Bring out a few differences between the two art forms: Therukoothu and Bommalattam.


An Anagram is a word or a phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once. 

Now try to solve these anagrams

1. ELBOW  
2. SECTION  
3. VIEWER  
4. RIPPLES  
5. NEEDLESS  

Complete the following table with information from the anecdote about Mr. Scotti’s short trip.

Name Nicholas Scotti
Occupation  
Reason for his trip  
Means of transport  
Destination  

Based on your reading, rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence.

  1. Since all her methods failed, finally she gave him a pain-killer.
  2. He told his aunt that Peter had no aunt, so he gave him the medicine.
  3. The pain-killer triggered adverse reactions on Peter.
  4. It jumped out of the open window.
  5. Tom was dull and depressed.
  6. This incident upset Aunt Polly and she questioned him.
  7. But, Tom gave that painkiller to the cat Peter.
  8. So, Aunt Polly tried different types of remedies on him.

Who was the first person to withdraw cash from the ATM?


Which theory of Ramanujan helps the ATMs to dispense cash?


Why did Anne want to exchange the book ‘Camera Obscura’?


Write the name of the toys against each picture.


Who told the children the story about the ghosts on Haunted Hill?


Why was it a struggle for the children to dry their clothes?


Which of these statements do you find in the speech?

  1. Inclusion is essential for us to do well in life. 
  2. We should neglect others. 
  3. Communicate politely with the less privileged.
  4. Teachers teach us to communicate well.
  5. Effective Communication is inessential to excel in life.

Fill in the blank

______ is the festival which fills our hearts with delight.


What kind of joy is unfurled during the festival of sacrifice?


Read the lines and answer the questions.

And in fighting for their country, faith and king
noble impressions on people’s minds would ring

  1. What does ‘noble impression’ mean?
  2. Who can leave a noble impression?

How does Alice feel after all these changes?


Look at the number pattern. Fill the blank in the middle of the series or end of the series.

QPO, NML, KJI, ______, EDC


He woke up very late in the morning.


Who inhabited the jungles that the train passed through?


Vasantha made a lot of noise because ______


Read the incidents. Work in small groups to role play the situations in which they showed their presence of mind. Each group should perform the skit for the rest of the class. Share similar situations in the class.


Grandfather felt planting trees would help the forest because______.


Read the story on your own. Discuss in a group and complete the story map below.

A story map is the main events of the story given in a flow chart.


What did she sell to support her family?


One of the Lilliputians gave a ten minutes talk in Gulliver’s language.


Gulliver managed to reach the land as he was______.


How should one react to adversity?


The farmer was thankful at the sight of the verdant bowl because______.


The dry earth soaked up the moisture as a hungry puppy laps up milk. It means______.


The ________ are trying to terraform Mars.


Is the brother boastful? What makes you think so?


Which planet has red storm?


How does Patna differ from Delhi?


The second daughter ________ the milet to a flock of birds.


Try your own.


Choose the odd one out.


Every ______ they would go fishing.


Why did Robinson name the tribe Friday?


Write the rhyming word.

goat


All the animals called the sparrow ______.


______is next to parents in care.


Number the actions of Pandi and Nandhini in order.


Teddy took his pillow as a sign of ______ them.


What are the difficulties they faced in India?


What is the main idea of the text?


Recite any 4 lines of the poem with intonation.


Rani and Divya informed the happening to the ______.


In which season is ice cream popular?


Hundial is a______ pot.


In real, the test is for______.


What will help us grow?


Mugund learnt the art from his ______.


Why is your nose important for you?


Why did Nasruddin take someone else’s name each time he missed the target?


What sort of a boy is described in the poem?


What strange things did Alice see?


What does the poet want us to do at night?


Who agreed to help Helen?


What did he claim to know?


When should we not water the plants?


Why is the play called ‘The Giving Tree’?


Why did the animals think that the jackal was a king?


Write the related words as shown in the example.


Read the passage carefully and complete the activities: 

1. Complete the following sentences. (2)

  1. Female sparrows lay ____________
  2. Sparrows build their nest out of __________.
  3. The eggs are ________.
  4. In cities, sparrows build their nest in ______

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

2. How do sparrows take bathe? (2)

3. Find out adjectives for the following nouns from the passage. (2)

  1. ________ Song
  2. ________ Water
  3. ________ Bird
  4. ________ species

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world.
    (Underline the subordinate clause)
  2. Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time.
    (Frame a ‘wh’ type question to get the underlined part as an answer.)

5. ‘We have to save the birds.’ Do you agree with this statement? Why? (2)


Read the passage and write a summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to the summary

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.


Read the following passage and do the activities.

1. State whether the following sentences are True or false. (2)

  1. The king’s temperament also changed.
  2. The king was happy with prediction of the astrologer.
  3. The courtiers sought an audience with Tenali Raman.
  4. Courtiers advised the king to regulate his diet.

2. Complete the web (2)

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising.

He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.

3. Find out describing words from the passage for the words given below. (2)

  1. exercise - ________
  2. lifestyle - ________
  3. ride - _________
  4. physician - __________

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning.
    (Use 'used to)
  2. They advised the king to regulate his diet. (Pick out the infinitive)

5. What are the benefits of daily exercise? (2)


Read the passage and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary.

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising. He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.


Read the poem.

For Want of a Nail
For want of a nail, the shoe was lost,
For want of a shoe the horse was lost,
For want of a horse, the rider was lost,
For want of a rider, the battle was lost,
For want of a battle, the kingdom was lost,
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail!
[traditional rhyme]

Now form questions for the answers given in the speech bubbles.


Say Aloud

dash bash splash cash trash
steer tear clear deer dear
shower power tower flower mower
poked croaked soaked stroked joked
wept kept crept leapt slept

Circle the words where you get a zzzzz sound. One is done for you.

honeybees
price prize maze face
rice rise blaze fizz
lazy lacy busy racy
raise rays race ace
chase this these frosty

Now, read the following passage on “Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress-busting endorphins. Since our bodies cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
  2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter comes from the body and not the mind.
  3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practiced in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason'. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
  4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm-up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
  5. A handful of small-scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.

Answer the following.

a. How does laughter help one to cope with stress?

b. Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated'?

c. Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?

d. ‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.

e. Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?

  • sitting on the ground with legs crossed 
  • body movements
  • clapping
  • closed eyes 
  • breathing exercises 
  • chanting
  • stretching of arms and legs
  • bending backwards 
  • running/jogging
  • eye contact

f. ‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?


The passage given below is on Kabbadi. Read the passage and complete the activities that follow.

Kabbadi (கபடி - in Tamil) is a contact team sport that originated in Tamil Nadu, India. It is the national sport of Bangladesh. It is also popular in South Asia and is the state game of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana.

Kabbadi is played between two teams of seven players: the objective of the game is for a single player on offence referred to as a 'raider', to run in to the opposing teams half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court–all without being tackled by the defenders. Points are scored for each player tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but can be 'revived' for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle. The raider should hold his breath and utter the words like 'kabbadi kabbadi, hututu hututu, chadu kudu' etc. while the opponents try to catch him. If he stops uttering these words, he is considered out.

The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the subcontinent, such as Kabbadi or Chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, Kabbadi in Kerala and Telangana, Hadudu in Bangladesh, Bhavatik in Maldives, Kauddi or Kabbadi in the Punjab Region, Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India and Hu-Do-Do in Eastern India and Chadakudu in South India. The highest governing body of Kabbadi is the International Kabbadi Federation.

Given below is the visual presentation of the first paragraph.

i) Represent the other paragraphs in a visual form of your choice(flow chart, mind-map, pie-chart, etc.).

ii) Choose the correct option.

1. A contact sport usually involves a ______contact between players.

  1. violent
  2. gentle
  3. physical

2. Kabbadi is a game played between ______.

  1. seven teams of two players
  2. two teams of seven players
  3. four teams of seven players

3. A single ______.

  1. player on offence is referred to as a raider
  2. offence is referred to as a raider
  3. raider is an offence by the player

iii) Answer the following.

  1. How does a raider score points for his team?
  2. When does a raider concede a point to the opponent team?
  3. Can a player be revived when he/she is out of the game? Explain your answer.
  4. Kabbadi is called by different names in different parts of India. Do you know how Pallankuzhi is called in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala?

Now, read the following biographical extract on Sujatha Rangarajan, a Sciencefiction writer, and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Sujatha is the allonym of the Tamil author S. Rangarajan and it is this name that is recognised at once by the Tamil SciFi reading community. You might have seen the Tamil movie ‘Endiran’ where the robot Chitti exhibits extraordinary talents in an incredible manner. The robot could excel a human being in any act, beyond one’s imagination. Jeeno, a robotic dog which appeared in Sujatha’s science fiction novel “En Iniya Iyandhira” (My Dear Robot) formed the basis of Chitti’s character. Like Chitti, Jeeno was an allrounder who could cook, clean and fight. High-tech computer technology terms are used in the story. Jeeno, a pet robot, plays an important role throughout the story. As the story proceeds, it behaves and starts to think on its own like a human and instructs Nila, a human being, on how to proceed further in her crises.
  2. In the preface of ‘En Iniya Iyandhira’, the writer states the reason for his attraction to the genre: “Science gives us the wonderful freedom to analyse thousands and thousands of alternative possibilities. While using it, and while playing with its new games, a writer needs to be cautious only about one thing. The story should draw some parallels or association from the emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then it becomes interesting. Jeeno, the robot dog, was intelligent. But the character became popular only because of the robot’s frequently displayed human tendencies.” It is no wonder that all his works echo these words and will remain etched in the minds of the readers who enjoy reading his novels to have a wonderful lifetime experience.
  3. It was Sujatha, who set the trend for sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He has written 50 sci-fi short stories and these were published in various Tamil magazines. His stories have inspired many readers to extend their reading to English sci-fi writers like Isaac Asimov. The themes were bold, even if there was a dependence on a very well-established characterization of English fiction. Sujatha opened up a new world to us with his writings on holograms, computers and works like ‘En Iniya Iyanthira’ inspire many to study computer science.
  4. He has been one of the greatest writers for more than four decades. He combined reasoning and science in his writings. Being a multifaceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctively. He was the one who took Tamil novels to the next level. As an MIT alumnus and an engineer at BHEL, he was very good at technology. He could narrate sci-fi stories impressively. His readers always enjoyed reading all his detective and sci-fi novels which featured the most famous duo ‘Ganesh’ and ‘Vasanth’.
  5. Sujatha has played a crucial role as a playwright for various Tamil movies which have fascinated movie lovers. Hence, it is fathomable that the writer’s perspective of future India enthuses every reader and paves a new way to reading sci-fi stories in English.

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

  1. How was Jeeno different from other robots?
  2. What precaution should one take while writing Science fiction stories?
  3. What inspired Sujatha’s themes?
  4. Why were Sujatha’s sci-fi stories impressive?

B. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. difficult to believe (para 1)
  2. a style or category of art, music or literature (para 2)
  3. having many sides (para 4)
  4. capable of being understood (para 5)

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

The Stationmaster’s Supreme Sacrifice by Sanchari Pal (Adapted)

  1. Thirty-three years ago, on the night of December 2, 1984, Bhopal was hit by a catastrophe that had no parallel in the world’s industrial history. An accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal had released almost 30 tons of a highly toxic gas called methyl isocyanate, turning the city into a vast gas chamber. The result was a nightmare; more than 600,000 people were exposed to the deadly gas cloud that left thousands dead and many more breathless, blind and in agonizing pain. Few people know that during the Bhopal gas tragedy a heroic stationmaster risked his own life to save others.
  2. On the evening of December 3, 1984, Ghulam Dastagir was settling down in his office to complete some pending paperwork. This work kept him in his office till 1am in the night, when he emerged to check the arrival of the Gorakhpur Mumbai Express. As he stepped on to the platform, the deputy stationmaster felt his eyes burn and a queer itching sensation in his throat. He did not know that poisonous fumes leaking from Union Carbide’s pesticide factory were stealthily enveloping the railway station.
  3. Beginning to choke, Dastagir did not know then that twenty-three of his railway colleagues, including his boss, station superintendent Harish Dhurve, had already died. It was later reported that Dhurve had heard about the deadly gas and had immediately tried stopping the movement of trains passing through Bhopal before collapsing in his office chamber. His suddenly worsening health and years of experience told Dastagir that something was very wrong. Though he did not fully comprehend what was happening, he decided to act immediately when he did not get any response from the station master. He alerted the senior staff at nearby stations, like Vidisha and Itarsi, to suspend all train traffic to Bhopal.
  4. However, the jam-packed GorakhpurKanpur Express was already standing at the platform and its departure time was 20 minutes away. Listening to his gut instinct, Dastagir summoned his staff and told them to immediately clear the train for departure. When they asked if they should wait until the order to do so came from the head office, Dastagir replied that he would take complete responsibility for the train’s early departure. He wanted to ensure that the train left immediately, without any delay. His colleagues later recalled that Dastagir could barely stand and breathe as he spoke to them. Breaking all rules and without taking permission from anyone, he and his brave staff personally flagged off the train.
  5. But Dastagir’s work was not done. The railway station was filling up with people, desperate to flee the fumes. Some were gasping, others were vomiting, and most were weeping. Dastagir chose to remain on duty, running from one platform to another, attending, helping and consoling victims. He also sent an SOS to all the nearby railway offices, asking for immediate medical help. As a result, four ambulances with paramedics and railway doctors arrived at the station. It was winter and the gas was staying low to the ground, a thick haze poisoning everything in its path. Besieged by hordes of suffering people, the station soon resembled the emergency room of a large hospital. Dastagir stayed at the station, steadfastly doing his duty, knowing that his family was out there in the ill-fated city. That day all he had for his protection was a wet handkerchief on his mouth.
  6. Ghulam Dastagir’s devotion to duty saved the lives of hundreds of people. However, the catastrophe didn’t leave him unscathed. One of his sons died on the night of the tragedy and another developed a lifelong skin infection. Dastagir himself spent his last 19 years shuttling in and out of hospitals; he developed a painful growth in the throat due to prolonged exposure to toxic fumes. When he passed away in 2003, his death certificate mentioned that he was suffering from diseases caused as a direct result of exposure to MIC (Methyl Isocyanate) gas. A memorial has been built at platform No.1 to pay tribute to those who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty on the fateful night of December 3, 1984. However, Ghulam Dastagir, who died later, is not one of them. A forgotten hero whose sense of duty and commitment saved countless lives, Dastagir’s story deserves to be recognized and remembered by our fellow countrymen.
  1. Why was the accident at Union Carbide unparalleled in the world’s industrial history?
  2. How was Dastagir affected by the poisonous gas?
  3. What was the action taken by the station superintendent?
  4. How did Dastagir and his staff break rules?
  5. What was the cause of Dastagir’s death?
  6. Find words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.
  1. safeguard (para 1)
  2. common or familiar (para 2)
  3. prompt (para 4)
  4. cause (para 6)

Who according to Gandhi, can fight against evil and how?


What is Gandhiji’s ideal?


According to Tagore, when will India get the opportunity to win the gift of freedom?


How does Tagore acknowledge Gandhi’s noble work?


Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. a malevolent desire for revenge (para 1)
  2. tactful (para 2)
  3. despise (para 3)

Find words from the passage which are antonyms of the following. 

  1. artificially (para 1)
  2. strength (para 2)

Here is an amazing news item on how the qualities of duty and devotion is not restricted to humans alone but shared by animals. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

Caesar, the Hero of Mumbai on 26/11 

  1. Mumbai: Caesar, the last surviving hero of his kind, died of a heart attack on Thursday. Caesar, a Labrador Retriever, was covered with tri-color and given an emotional farewell from the city Police Force. The Mumbai Police Commissioner too marked the passing of the hero with a tweet.
  2. Caesar, who was 11 years old was the sole survivor among the dogs of Mumbai Police who took part in bomb detection operations during the terrorist attack on Mumbai that began on November 26, 2008. He died of a heart attack at a farm in Virar where he and his three canine buddies had been sent after retirement. During the terror attack in Mumbai, Caesar saved several lives when he sniffed out the hand grenades left by the terrorists at the busy CST railway station.
  3. Caesar was also a part of the search team at Nariman House, where terrorists were holed up for three days. Earlier he was also pressed into service for bomb search operation after the 2006 serial train blasts and July 2017 blast in Mumbai. The Mumbai police officials also tweeted their grief saying, “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable. We will remember our heroes forever.”

Answer the following questions.

  1. The Labrador Retriever was covered with tri-color. What does this signify?
  2. How did Caesar save several lives at the CST railway station?
  3. Which word in the third paragraph of the passage means the same as ‘forced’? 
  4. “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable”. Mention three services rendered by Caesar.
  5. Caesar is a Labrador breed of dogs. Name a few other native breeds that are used by the Police Force.
  6. Try to rewrite the news item in your mother tongue without losing the spirit and flavour of the text. Give a suitable title to the translated version.

Read the passage given below and make notes.

To match the best cities across the world, the Government of India initiated ‘smart cities’ to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people. The agenda under smart city promises to resolve urban sustainability problems. Urban forests provide a range of important ecosystem services that are critical for the sustainability of cities. Urban forestry, which is defined more as ‘Management of Trees’ contributes to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the society. Mangroves, lakes, grasslands, and forests in and around our cities, act as sponges that absorb the air and noise pollution and they present themselves as our cultural and recreational hotspots. However, these spots are rapidly being reclaimed and replaced in the name of development. Presence of urban green has shown to increase the economic value of the place.

Urban forests contribute to reduce the cost of building storm water drain systems for municipalities and neutralizing urban heat island effect. Plants not only provide shade but also help in regulating the micro-climate. They help regulate energy budgets, improve air quality, and curtail noise pollution. Trees, herbs, shrubs, and grasses arrest sedimentation and prevent other pollutants from entering our water systems. This will give a chance for our urban lakes and rivers to recover and help improve aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity also gets a boost through the urban forestsand helps create corridors connecting the forest areas. High biodiversity areas can also help to build resilient ecosystems. Availability of forests within our urban areas gives an opportunity for children to connect to the natural environment and learn about native species.


Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.


Now read the following article on the emerging career options in the modern era and answer the questions that follow.

The students at the higher secondary level in schools start thinking of suitable courses to take up at the university level based on their aptitude, ability, and interests. While considering the higher education options, they should also plan the career path they wish to take. In today’s complex job scenario, there is a mismatch between demand and supply. On one hand, we have qualified professionals desperately trying to find a job, while on the other hand, there are many professions that need suitable talented employees. But such skilled employees are unavailable. Therefore, the need of the hour is that students have an understanding of the emerging career options. and globalisation has widened the scope of career options in the twenty–first century. Let us consider some popular careers.

Fashion Designing

The current cosmopolitan and fashion–conscious wave that has taken over our country has opened up a huge arena for careers in fashion. These careers encompass designing clothes, costumes, jewellery, footwear, wardrobe, cosmetics, accessories and the like.

Culinary Arts

With food and cookery shows being a major trend across the world, culinary arts, a sub-domain of the hospitality sector, has now become the most sought-after career.

Paramedical sciences

In recent times, there has been a great demand in the health care industry. Paramedical professionals who support medical practitioners in areas such as optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are much sought after.

Media, Journalism and Advertising

In this information era, print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. This arena has become a huge career playground because youngsters are attracted to it as the exposure and reach are greater through such mass media. We notice that radio and TV channels, internet companies, and advertising agencies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

Hotel Management

The hotel industry is the fastest-growing industry in India. The number of international travellers (both for business and leisure) is increasing. The hospitality and service industry offers career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management, etc.

Sports Management

With multinational companies supporting sports, careers in sports offer enormous scope. One need not be a player or an athlete to shine in a sports career because the field of sports offers various career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists, dieticians, referees, etc. Conducting sports events successfully, organizing the event laudably, preparing the ground for the event are all part of sports management.

  1. When do students start thinking about their career path?
  2. How can students build a strong career?
  3. What are the integral aspects of a successful career?
  4. What is meant by ‘culinary art’?
  5. Why is media a popular career option?
  6. Name some paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.
  7. Why is the hotel industry seen as the fastest growing in India?
  8. Does one have to be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.
  9. Pick one word from the passage which is the opposite of ‘modern’.
  10. Which word in the passage means ‘composed of people from many parts of the country’?

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

Humans have long been fascinated by fiction. We experience excitement in assigning supernatural power to imaginary characters in fictional stories – and so we have Spider man, Batman, He–man, Titans and many more. The ‘Cyborg’ was an offshoot of such wild imagination of humans to invest our species with superhuman powers. Today, the Cyborg is no more an imaginary organism. We are living in a world where a sizeable population of humans have merged their bodies with technological implants. The term ‘Cyborg’, short for ‘cybernetic organism’, was coined to describe a man, whose body is implanted with technological devices to supplement and substitute body functions.

Cyborgs include people with cardiac pacemakers, contact lenses, bionic ears and eyes, prosthetics and so on. In other words, a cyborg is partly human and partly machine. The technological innovations in the field of medicine and healthcare augment humans with machines, producing a beta version of the human body. The advent of brain machine interfaces is certain to blur the boundary between humans and machines. Scientists are working hard to find a technique for age reversal too. People do not want to die, so mankind is striving to get to the final frontier, which is development of machines and devices that would accord man immortality.

The needs of humans are not limited. As time passes, food habits change, thinking patterns change, and even appearances change. We are about to travel by driverless, fully automated vehicles. Computers and smart phones have become our masters. The more we depend and merge with technological advancements, the more the humanness in us slowly erodes. Intelligence is sought to be infused into machines and robotics are designed in such a way to give man a virtual human companion. The field of artificial intelligence is overtaking the human brain and many fear that it could even harm the human race. Despite certain limitations and potential threats, many believe that cyborgs will be the next step in the evolution of mankind. The amalgamation of man and machine is sure to add a new dimension to the life of mankind and this will prove to be the ‘biggest evolution in Biology’ since the emergence of life, four billion years ago.

Questions:

a) Account for the popularity of characters with supernatural powers.

b) Who is referred to as a ‘Cyborg’?

c) What is expected to happen with the advent of the brain machine interface?

d) The needs of humans are not limited. How is this statement elaborated in the passage?

e) How can a machine turn into a virtual companion for humans?

f) Explain the flipside of the rapid technological advancement.

g) Identify the word in para 1 which means ‘everlasting life’.

h) Which of the following words is synonymous with ‘amalgamation’?

  1. recreation
  2. integration
  3. exploration
  4. proposition

i) Which of the following options is the antonym of the word ‘advent’?

  1. drawback
  2. dispute
  3. departure
  4. danger

j) Find out the word which is the antonym of ‘natural’ in para 3.


On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.

The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “Shyar Khamba”. The inhabitants of Shyar Khamba, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today

Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary’’. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.

The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.

Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922, 1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse. Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain. In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest.


Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the environment is called air pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution.

Particulate Matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles if inhaled can affect health. The impact of PM 2.5 is particularly high in South Asia. Outdoor pollution is caused by a variety of pollutants like public and private vehicles, waste burning in the open, power production industries and construction and even cigarette smoking in public places.

Presently, air pollution is a major and growing risk factor for ill health in India. Delhi is one of the most air polluted cities in India. The air in the city as well as areas surrounding it has worsened to extremely hazardous levels in the recent years. This year’s pollution level is the worst in four years. Several studies have shown that poor air quality is a cause for many health issues among people with lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio vascular diseases. Some studies throw light on the fact that about 16 per cent of the deaths worldwide in 2015 were due to pollution.

Air Masks are an option to protect oneself outdoor. Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate matter up to the size of 2.5 microns and above. Their usage is limited to some days and should be disposed off after their prescribed duration of usage. The price for air masks starts from Rs 100 and can go up to Rs 500 and more.

We have to take active measures to control pollution and protect ourselves to lead a healthy and pollution free life.

  1. What is meant by pollution? Mention the different kinds of pollution.
  2. How does Particulate Matter cause air pollution?
  3. Identify three major causes of pollution in air
  4. Name the types of pollution we encounter now.
  5. What sort of health issues do people face due to air pollution?
  6. How can we protect ourselves outdoor from air pollution?
  7. Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
  8. Identify the meaning of the word similar to the one used in the fourth para:
  1. emerging
  2. filtering
  3. floating
  4. falling

Read the following information given in the table below and answer the questions.

A nice choice from Chennai to the National capital
RAJADHANI EXPRESS TIMETABLE
Shortest Route between Chennai and Hazrat Nizamuddin 8 Halts & 324 intermediate stations in between
Station Name Departs Day Speed
Chennai Central 06.05 1 75
Vijayawada 11.55 1 76
Warangal 14.40 1 77
Balharshah 18.00 1 78
Nagpur 20.45 1 74
Bhopal 02.10 2 89
Jhansi 05.31 2 99
Gwalior 06.32 2 85
Agra Cantt 07.57 2 76
Hazrat Nizamudin 10.25 2 -

a) The number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is______.

  1. five
  2. ten
  3. eight
  4. eleven

b) The train is expected to reach ______ around 8.45 PM

  1. Warangal
  2. Vijayawada
  3. Bhopal
  4. Nagpur

c) Between ______ the train runs at its maximum speed.

  1. Bhopal and Gwalior 
  2. Bhopal and Jhansi
  3. Bhopal and Hazarat Nizamudin
  4. Bhopal and Agra

d) Almost ______ the train reaches Vijayawada.

  1. the day after
  2. around early morning
  3. late night
  4. around noon

e) People prefer the Rajadhani Express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital because ______.

  1. it reaches the destination on the same day
  2. the charge is reasonable.
  3. the train halts at ten stations.
  4. it is the shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi.

f) The destination of Rajadhani express is______.

  1. Hazarat Nizamudin.
  2. New Delhi junction.
  3. Old Delhi.
  4. Rajkot.

How should teenagers guard against cyber crimes?


What should we do to ensure Safe Surfing?


What are the details not to be revealed in public domain?


What should parents do to ensure the safety of children in cyber space?


How can we identify insecure websites?


Mention any three details that should not be revealed in public domain.


What should parents do to ensure cyber safety for their wards? (Any three points)


Pick out word which mean the same as

stop doing something (para 1) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

place or fix (para 2) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

not protected (para 2)


Pick out word which mean the same as

keep a check on (para 3)


Read the given sentence and underline the 'no' word.

Nobody is at home.


Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

"I don't believe in taking the right decisions. I take decisions, I take decisions and then make them right:' One of them make them right. One of Ratan Tata's inspiring words which made me dream beyond shadows. I feel fortunate that I discovered him in the early stage of my life and now I am using his teachings to mould my future the way I want.

Even though Ratan Tata was born into a very posh family in India, he never took money and power for granted. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York, Ratan Tata began his career in the Tata Group working on the shop floor of Tata Steel. After working for almost 10 years he was appointed as the director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited (NELCO) in order to help its struggling finances. He worked hard to build a better consumer electronics division but the economic recession and union strikes prevented him from achieving success and this success helped Tata to be appointed as the chairman of the Tata Group of companies. He started with a very basic job in his father's company and today he owns a billion dollar company.

The tag of greatness does not come without making any sacrifices and this tag on Ratan Tata suits to its best.

Tata group launched its passenger car Tata Indica in the year 1998 but Tata Indica was a failure in its first year and the experiment seemed to be failing. Many people started advising Ratan Tata that he should sell the passenger car business. Ratan Tata also agreed to this and a proposal was given to Ford. they showed interest too. The three-hour meeting at Ford headquarters in Detroit, chairman of Ford (Bill Ford) said to Ratan Tata, "Why did you enter in the passenger car business when you were not knowing of it. It will be a favour if we buy this business from you."

Ratan Tata decided to move back home. Whi le travelling he was very tense as the feeling of being insulted was on his mind. After earlier failures, Tata Motors did well with its business of passenger cars but in the same period, Ford did very bad. In 2008 when Ford was on it way of bankruptcy, Tata Group offered Ford to buy its luxury car brand, Jaguar Land Rover. Ford arrived in Mumbai for the meeting. In the meeting, Bill Ford said to Ratan Tata, you are doing a big favour for us by buying-Jaguar-Land Rover is now owned by Tata Group and is currently making profits.

A1. Rewrite the following sentences as per their occurrence in the extract:   (2)

  1. He was appointed as the Director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited.
  2. Tata Group launched its passenger car 'Tata Indica in the year 1998.
  3. Billi Ford said to Ratan Tata, "You are doing a big favour for us by buying Jaguar-Land Rover."
  4. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York.

A2. Explain:   (2)

The writer says, "I don't believe in taking right decisions. I take decisions and then make them right."

A3. Give reasons:  (2)

Ratan Tata decided to sell his passenger car business.

A4. Personal Response:  (2)

Right decision at the right time is important success. Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:   (2)

Do as directed:

  1. He worked hard building a better consumer electronics division.
    (Rewrite the sentence using the infinitive form of the underlined word)
  2. Tata Group launched the passenger car Tata Indica.
    (Rewrite it beginning with 'The passenger car Tata Indica......')

A6. Vocabulary:

Give antonyms.

  1. Profit × ______
  2. Prevent × ______

Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Fill in the blanks:  (2)

  1. ______ percent of our daily communication is non-verbal.
  2. Eye contact is another type of ______ communication.
  3. Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling ______.
  4. One can readily detect _______.

According to some experts, a staggering 93 percent of our daily communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions are easy to decipher. One can readily detect happiness, sadness, anger. Physicians can tell a patient is doing well (or not) by looking at his/her face.

Eye contact is another type of non-verbal communication, which can tell a lot about the other person. The eyes convey a range of emotions-happiness, sadness, boredom, surprise, confidence .......... even emotional interest. Staring at someone's forehead may intimidate the recipient, staring at the mouth is sometimes interpretated as a sign of emotional interest. In fact, staring into someone's eyes is a sign of lying, and so is looking away. In certain cultures, lack of eye contact is taken as a sign of respect.

If body language is to be defined, it is a combination of facial expression, gestures, eye contact, body movements and posture and voice.

Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling distressed or uncomfortable. If the pupils are dilated, it ofter indicates interest, even emotional interest. The lips also reflect our body language, and lip biting indicates worry and/or anxiety; tightening of the lips may be an indication of disapproval. Slightly turned-up lips indicate happiness and slightly turned-down lips indicate sadness.

A2.

A3. Find the antonyms of:    (2)

  1. verbal × ______
  2. entertaining × ______
  3. sender × ______
  4. comfortable × ______

A4. Do as Directed:   (2)

  1. The eyes convey a range of emotions.   (Frame a 'Wh' question in order to get the underlined part as answer).
  2. Physicians can tell about a patient's wellness.  (Rewrite using 'able to')

A5. Personal Response:   (2)

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in our daily life. Comment.


Match the following items from column-A with those column-B:

Column 'A' Column 'Non-Textual'
(a) Geoffrey Chaucer (i) Trinidad
(b) Daniel Defoe (ii) Wuthering Heights
(c) V.S. Naipaul (iii) Robinson Crusoe
(d) Emile Bronte (iv) The Canterbury Tales

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

The call of the seas has always found an echo in me. Not being rich enough to roam in a private yacht, I have taken the poor man's way out. I swim across them. I have always been fascinated by the Indian ocean, whether at Mumbai, at Puri or at Gopalpur. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill. But the idea of swimming the Palk Strait did not occur to me until after I swam in the English channel. Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered. teaming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me. By the way, for preparation, I continued a strict and rigorous course of training which began in 1960. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea. Neither of these was easy.

Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait, especially about the tides and currents. Everything about the English channel is known-there is the Channel Swimming Association, there are trained pilots there are wants to be hired, accurate weather forecasts, dependable tide tables and every other form of assistance was readily available. All that one needed was money. Here in the Palk Strait one has to find out firstly from where information could be obtained and then decide how much of it could be incorrect or misleading!

A1. Rewrite the following as per their sequence in the extract:    (2)

  1. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea.
  2. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill.
  3. All that one needed was money.
  4. Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait.

A2. Explain:    (2)

What does the writer man by saving, "Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered, teeming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me"?

A3. Give reason:   (2)

The narrator had an intense desire to swim in the Palk Strait. Explain the reasons for it.

A4. Personal Response:    (2)

Do you like to have an adventurous life? Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:

Do as directed:   (2)

  1. Very little was known about the Palk Strait. (Rewrite as a negative sentence)
  2. I had to collect a comprehensive range of facts. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with 'A comprehensive ........)

A6. Vocabulary:   (2)

Give the synonyms of the following words:

  1. rigorous - ______
  2. thrill - ______

Read the passage given below:

1. Very often, we do not take the first step towards a good cause because we say to ourselves, "The task is so big. What can I do alone?" So nothing gets done. There is much talk about environmental protection, air pollution and saving our forests. Do we really care? If we do, here are a few things we can do to make our surroundings more pleasant.
2. It is good to adopt a two-uses-attitude! By putting an article to a second use, we are giving it a longer lease of life and using up less raw material from nature. One of the worst things we do is abuse of paper. The clean sides of envelopes can be used to write small notes, lists and reminders around the house. The more paper we use, the more trees will have to be cut down. For the same reason, we should avoid the use of paper napkins or paper plates. Cloth napkins are just as good, for they can be washed and used over and over again.
3. Another area which needs the most urgent attention is effective garbage disposal. People who are conscious about it follow rules and laws strictly. As a result, their neighbourhoods are clean and beautiful Similarly, each one of us can contribute to a cleaner environment. All kitchen waste should be collected separately. Those of you who have green fingers can turn this into valuable manure. Dig a pit and put the kitchen waste into it. When the pit is a little over half full, cover it up with mud. Let nature do the rest. Within three or six months, we will have a good garden manure. It can also be done as a community project by digging a large pit in the colony. Do take help of all the members, for nothing succeeds like co-operation
4. A lot of people don't care about the environment because they don't understand the adverse effect that society has on it. It is important to convince people to care about the environment. The first step would be to convince people to change by providing simple alternative solutions and ways of doing things. Theintemet is a powerful tool and a group on social media of like-minded people can be formed. People can share environmental stories and issues, as well as pool in solutions and alternatives to educate one another. With the current state that our planet is in, it is imperative that people actively care about the environment and most importantly to act now.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any Eight questions from the nine given below:

  1. Why don't we take the first step towards a good cause?
  2. What is a two-uses-attitude?
  3. What can we do to avoid the abuse of paper? (any two points)
  4. What is the result of an effective way of a garbage disposal?
  5. What procedure can one adopt for kitchen waste?
  6. How can making of garden manure be done as community project?
  7. How long does it take to make good garden manure?
  8. Select a suitable word from the passage which means - being concerned or interested. (Paragraph 3)
  9. Pick out the word from the passage which means - completely necessary? (Paragraph 4)

Read the passage below:

1. Our history makes it evident that the Indian Plastics Industry made a vigorous beginning in 1957 but it took more than 30 years for it to pervade Indian lifestyles. In 1979, "the market for plastics' was just being seeded by the state-owned Indian Petro-Chemicals and it was only in 1994 that plastic soft drink bottles became a visible source of annoyance.
2. In the same year, people in other cities were concerned about the state of public sanitation and also urged regulatory bodies to ban the production, distribution and use of plastic bags. However, the challenge was greater than it appeared at first.
3.

The massive generation of plastic waste in India is due to rapid urbanisation, spread of retail chains, plastic packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products, to consumer items and cosmetics. The projected high growth rates of GDP and continuing rapid urbanisation suggest that India's trajectory of plastic consumption and plastic waste is likely to increase.

4. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report of 2018, India stands among few other countries like France, Mongolia and several African countries that have initiated total or partial nationallevel bans on plastics in their jurisdictions. On World Environment Day in 2018, India vowed to phase out single-use plastics by 2022, which gave a much needed impetus to bring this change
5. In this context, thereafter ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) are currently sending their collected waste to cement plants for co-processing, twelve other states/UTs are using plastic waste for polymer bitumen road construction and still four other states are using the plastic waste for waste-to-energy plants and oil production. A world of greater possibilities has now opened up to initiate appropriate and concrete actions to build up the necessary institutions and systems before oceans turn, irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic.
6. However there is no one single masterstroke to counter the challenges witnessed by the staggering plastic waste management in the country. The time is now to formulate robust and inclusive National Action Plans and while doing so, the country will establish greater transparency to combat the plastic jeopardy in a more sustainable and holistic way.

Based on your understanding of the passage answer any six out of the seven questions given below:

  1. What does the writer mean by 'visible source of annoyance'?
  2. Why did people demand a ban on plastics?
  3. What created a demand for plastics in India?
  4. With reference to the graph write one conclusion that can be drawn about the production of plastics in 2019 (approximately).
  5. What does the upward trend of the graph indicate?
  6. What does the line, oceans turning 'irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic', suggest?
  7. What step must be taken to combat the challenges of plastic waste management? What will be its impact?

Complete the dialogue.

Anil:  Which is your favourite book?
Sunil: ________________________
Anil: What type of book is it?
Sunil: ________________________

Being a bachelor, the stranger had no patience with children.


The branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources. 

  1. Microeconomics 
  2. Macro economics
  3. Economics
  4. None of these

Read the following sentence.

‘A very wise man once remarked that of the unspoken word, you are a master; of the spoken word, you are a slave.’ The sentence has two pairs of opposites - spoken and unspoken, and master and slave. The contrasting ideas make the sentence more effective. Putting together opposite or contrasting ideas in one sentence is a literary device. It is called antithesis.

Read the following examples of antithesis.

  • Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
  • Man proposes and God disposes.
  • Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
  • Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit.

Activity: Live English: Packs, packets, pouches, wrappers

Given above is the picture of an imaginary food item’s packet. Let us see how to ‘read’ the matter on the packet as a vigilant consumer.

  1. Look at the wrapper and complete the sentences.
    1. The name of the food item is ______.
    2. It is made by ______.
    3. It is a ______ food item. (Veg/Non-veg)
    4. The ______ sign indicates whether it is a Veg or Non-veg food item.
    5. The ingredients are ______, ______, ______, ______.
    6. The date of packing is ______ and the expiry date is ______.
    7. It should be consumed before ______ from the date of manufacturing.
  2. Try and obtain more information about the various symbols printed on the packet.
  3. Discuss the following -
    1. Why the ‘recipe’ is given on the packet.
    2. Why the packet tells us to visit the website of the company.
    3. What ideas are used to make the packet attractive.
    4. How you will verify whether something is good for you to eat.

Collect the outer coverings of fast food items. Discuss the following points in groups and then write your observations in your notebook.

  • Ingredients
  • Manufactured by
  • Net weight
  • Veg or Non-veg
  • Recipe
  • Nutrition facts
  • MRP
  • Mfg date
  • Website
  • Other instructions, if any

Based on the poet’s idea of true success, think of four people in your surroundings - your family, neighbours, friends, teachers, classmates, etc. who have achieved true success. Write, in short, what makes them successful.


William Shakespeare was one of the greatest playwrights of all time. He lived in the 16th century. Many Shakespearean plays have been written in the short-story form. Find out the names of at least 5 of Shakespearean plays.

Example: Romeo and Juliet


Enact any one anecdote in the classroom.


Form groups of four to six.
Discuss whether and how you can improve English spelling.


Arrange a ‘Jokes’ session in the classroom where each student tells a joke. The jokes must be told in English.


Make groups of 10-15. In this game, each person writes three sentences about himself/herself, two of which are true and the third one is a lie. Read aloud your sentences, while others guess which two are true and which is a lie.

Examples: Hello, everyone! I am Sonali. I have a brother and a sister. I live in Amalner. We have a pet dog at home.

In the game ‘Two Truths, One Lie!’, it is necessary to use details which can be verified to see whether they are true or false. For example, you cannot use sentences like ‘I once had a blue sweater.’


Look up the following entries in the Language Study pages given at the end.

  • stress
  • intonation
  • sound
  • consonant
  • vowel

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