Answer in Brief
Write short notes.
Administrative system in South India
- There were officials like 'Mahadandanayaka', 'Rashtrika', 'Deshadhikruta', 'Amatya', 'Ayukta', etc.
- The council of officers in the Chola kingdom was called 'Udankuttam'.
- The kingdom was divided into many provinces. These provinces were known as 'Mandalam'.
- A member of the royal family was the chief of the Mandalam.
- There were many officers under him such as 'Vishayapati', 'Deshadhipati', 'Deshadhikrut', 'Rashtrika', etc.
- The administration of the Southern kingdoms was very efficient. Village autonomy was an important feature.
- The 'Gramasabha' (village council) looked after the village administration.
- The head of the Gramasabha was known by different names such as 'Gramabhojaka', 'Gramakuta' etc.
- Land revenue was the main source of income for the state.
- Apart from it the excise tax, professional tax, pilgrimage tax were the sources of income.
Concept: The Administrative System, Trade, Social Life
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