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Genetic engineering: Genetic engineering which is also known as gene manipulation/recombinant DNA technology involves the modification of the genetic information of living organisms by manipulation of DNA. This manipulation can be done by adding, removing or repairing a part of DNA. This manipulation results in the change in phenotype of an organism.
For example, it is used in the synthesis human insulin and interferons.
There are various applications of genetic engineering:
(i) Producing enzymes, proteins, vaccines and antibiotics by bioprocess technology
(ii) Developing pest-resistant and disease-resistant crops
(iii) Identifying and correcting genetic defects by gene therapy
(iv) Forensic application, in the identification of criminals using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)