Write short note on the following.
Techniques of scientific management
The techniques of Scientific Management are discussed below:
- Time Study: -This technique helps a manager to calculate the time required to perform a particular job. He can take the decision about production or completion of an activity with the help of this technique. The time study is based on the speed of average worker. Every part of the total work is studied in detail and the time required to perform that job is calculated. This enables the manager to ascertain the standard time taken to complete a specific job. The manager can decide the remuneration to be paid to the worker based on this.
- Motion Study: -Motion study is the close study of body movements. That is the movements of hands, legs and other body parts. Manager should study these movements. This study helps the manager to understand the movements required for a person to do a particular task. This technique can be used by the manager to eliminate the unnecessary movements for doing the job. With the help of motion study the manager can eliminate or combine some actions in the process. Motion study increases efficiency and productivity of the employees.
- Functional Foremanship: -This technique refers to the guidance given to the worker by a specialist foreman. According to this technique a single worker is supervised by different supervisors. For doing a particular job, the worker performs various small tasks. While doing this job he will get the guidance and will be supervised by different superiors for each task. This techniques is exactly opposite of Fayol's principle of unit of command. According to Fayol there should one boss for worker but according to this technique for one worker there can be many supervisors.
- Standardization: -Standardization in the production implies (i) Selecting the standard tools and equipments for production and (ii) maintaining standard working conditions at the place of work. The management should provide good quality of tools and equipments used for production of a good quality. This helps the workers to perform the job easily and efficiently. This technique minimize the cost and makes best use of available resources.
- Different Piece Rate Plan: -According to Taylor there should discrimination between the efficient and inefficient workers. The payment should be made according to the performance of the worker. The efficient workers should be paid more whereas inefficient workers should be paid less remuneration. In this method a standard is fixed for production. Those who produce more than the standard should be paid more in the form of an incentive and those who perform less than the standard should be paid less as penalty.
Other Techniques: -In addition to the above techniques some other techniques are also suggested by Taylor. They include the use of instruction cards, strict rules of discipline, and use of charts, graphs, slides, charts to instruct the workers etc. these techniques are also used to develop better relations between the employers and employees.