Answer in Brief
Write about the chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat with the help of the given points.
- Means of livelihood
- Geographical spread
- Evidence of cultural contact with other people
- Period: The chalcolithic settlements in Gujarat coincide with the following phases of the Harappan culture:
(1) Early Harappan phase (3950-2600 B.C.E.)
(2) Mature (urban) phase (2600- 1900 B.C.E.)
(3) Post-Harappan phase (1900-900 B.C.E.)
- Means of livelihood: There are ample sources of semi-precious stones in Gujarat. Making beads of these stones was a big industry during Harappan times. The Neolithic settlements in Gujarat played a major role in procuring these stones. People residing in the neolithic settlements of Gujarat were mainly pastoral, that is people whose primary occupation was animal husbandry. Thus, making beads, animal husbandry, pottery making were some of the means of livelihood.
- Geographical spread: There are regional variations in the characteristics of the chalcolithic cultures of Gujarat. The chalcolithic pottery of Kutch - Saurashtra and Northern Gujarat is distinct from each other. The chalcolithic villages in Kutch-Saurashtra were abandoned by 1900 B.C.E.
- Evidence of cultural contact with other people: In the post-Harappan period there were two chalcolithic cultures in Gujarat. The culture in south Gujarat was known as 'Prabhas' culture and the one in northeastern Gujarat was known as 'Rangpur' culture. These cultures existed till 1800-1200 B.C.E.
Concept: Chalcolithic Period in India
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