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Metallurgy in Europe
- England had a number of iron mines.
- Therefore, it was necessary to advance the technique of smelting iron to acquire purified iron from it.
- The fuel for iron furnaces was replaced from wood to coal.
- Special machines were made to keep the furnaces at a set temperature and to maintain its aeration.
- In 1865, the process of producing steel from molten iron was invented and the nature of the iron industry underwent a major transformation.
- At about the same time, a method was adopted to pour the molten metal into casts for making iron bars (for e.g. rails).
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