Write a note on Vaccination.
- Administration of vaccine (i.e. inactivated pathogen or antigenic protection of particular pathogen) to protect against a particular pathogen, is called vaccination.
- Normally, the body’s immune system helps to protect against pathogens that cause infection.
- However, some pathogens can overwhelm the immune system. This results in serious illness.
- The pathogens most likely to cause illness, are the ones the body doesn’t recognize and which go undetected by the immune system.
- Vaccination is a method in which the immune system is exposed to a safe antigenic preparation that helps it recognize and eliminate a pathogenic organism when it is encountered.
- Vaccination is an important form of primary prevention, that can protect people from getting sick.
- Vaccination has helped control deadly diseases like measles, polio, tetanus, and whooping cough.
- It also primes immune cells to remember the types of antigens, allowing a faster response to the pathogen in future encounters.
Vaccines work by exposing a person to a safe version of a pathogen.
The different forms of vaccines are as follows:
a. A protein or sugar from the pathogen.
b. A dead or inactivated form of a pathogen
c. A toxoid containing toxin produced by a pathogen.
A weakened (attenuated) pathogen. When the body responds to the vaccine, it builds an adaptive immune response. This helps to equip the body to fight off an actual infection.
- The more people that are vaccinated, the more protected the individuals and the society are against diseases by a phenomenon known as herd immunity.