Write a comparative note on urbanisation in Brazil and India.
Urbanisation refers to the movement of people and human settlements from the rural areas to the urban areas. It is an important phenomenon of the 21st century. People migrate to other areas because of factors like employment opportunities, a higher standard of living, better facilities and infrastructure.
- Brazil is one of the few developing countries that is experiencing a huge increase in urbanisation. Urbanisation is an important factor that is contributing to its economic growth.
- Nearly 86% of the country’s population is living in cities. Cities like Sau Paulo is emerging as one of the major hubs of the country. But it is concentrated in the southern and the south-eastern parts of the country. This is because of the better facilities found in these parts.
- Even though the southern coastal climate is hot and humid, the region has adequate availability of water and natural resources.
- The transportation facilities are also much better.
- The settlements in the north-eastern parts of Brazil are scattered/dispersed in which the habitation regions are isolated or located far away from each other. This is because of the occurrence of severe droughts and famines in the highlands because of the scarcity of water.
- Thus, agriculture practices will be lesser resulting in sparse settlements. Also, the population in Amazon River basin is less.
- Hence urbanisation is also less in the region. Now the government is encouraging
‘Go West’ policy to reduce regional imbalance and ensure balanced development.
- Urbanisation in India is also similar to that experienced in Brazil. About 34% of the population is living in urban areas.
- Even though the rate is lesser in India, urbanisation is contributing to the rapid development in both countries.
- As of the present data, Delhi and Chandigarh experience the highest rate of urbanisation. But in India also the trend is lopsided.
- Southern India is highly urbanised compared to Northern India. Goa is the most urbanised state with 62.17% of its population living in urban areas. It is followed by Tamil Nadu and Kerala. This is because of the higher level of development and a higher standard of living associated with the southern states as compared to the northern ones.
- Northern states - except Delhi and Chandigarh -experience low levels of urbanisation. It is the lowest in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, and Rajasthan where people migrate to other states for better opportunities.
Thus, it can be said that in both Brazil and India the effects of urbanisation is lopsided.