Why should we conserve biodiversity ? How can we do it?
Biodiversity conservation is necessary because of the following reasons:
- Many commercially important products such as food, fibre and wood and countless industrial products are obtained from nature.
- Certain activities cannot be accomplished without the help of nature such as production of oxygen and pollination.
- Intangible benefits such as aesthetic pleasure are derived from nature.
- Conserving the species we share our planet with and passing the rich legacy of biodiversity to our future generations is our ethical duty.
Biodiversity can be conserved by the following means:
In situ conservation - In order to conserve biodiversity, some of the world’s biodiversity hotspots (with high degree of biodiversity and endemism) have been identified and are being protected. In India, biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries and national parks are built for this purpose.
Ex situ conservation - The threatened species of plants and animals are taken out of their habitats and are kept in special settings such as zoological parks, botanical gardens and wildlife parks.
Nowadays, the gametes of endangered species can be viably preserved by methods such as cryopreservation and can be fertilised in vitro, followed by propagation through tissue culture methods. Similarly, seeds can be preserved in seed banks.
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- Conservation of Biodiversity