Who fell down and down and down? - English

Advertisements
Advertisements
MCQ
One Word Answer

Who fell down and down and down?

Options

  • Alice

  • a mouse

  • the rabbit

Advertisements

Solution

the rabbit

Concept: Reading Skills
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
Chapter 4.2: Alice in Wonderland - Alice in Wonderland [Page 69]

APPEARS IN

NCERT English - Marigold Class 4 Cbse
Chapter 4.2 Alice in Wonderland
Alice in Wonderland | Q 8. 3. | Page 69

RELATED QUESTIONS

B1. Complete the following statements:
(i) The poet is talking about............................. .
(ii) As a nation weare missing our .................................... .
(iii) Old people havekeys ........................... .
(iv) The elderly remember .......................... .

"Oh the value of the elderly! How could anyone not know? They hold so many keys, so many
things they can show.
We all will read the other side this I firmly believe.
And the elderly are closest oh what clues we could retrieve.
For their characters are closest to how we'll be on high.
They are the ones most developed, you can see it if you try.
They've let go of the frivolous and kept things that are dear.
The memories of so sweet, of loved ones that were near.
As a nation we are missing our greatest true resource,
To get to know our elders and let them guide our course."

B2 Express
State what the underlined words mean:
(i) Oh the value of the elderly! State the value ............. .
(ii) They are the ones most developed. 'They' stand for ............. .

B3: Match the words in Column A with their rhyming word in Column B:

Column A Column B
(i) Course (a) Show
(ii) Believe (b) resource
- (c) retrieve

 


He asked. Boy, did he ask! First he asked me for a chance, then he asked nearly all the people he came across if they wanted to buy a telephone system from him. And his asking paid off. As he likes to put it, “Even a blind hog finds an acorn every once in a while.” That simply means that if you ask enough, eventually someone will say ‘yes’.

He cared. He cared about me and his customers. He discovered that when he cared more about taking care of his customers than he cared about taking care of himself, it wasn’t long before he didn’t have to worry about taking care of himself.
Most of all, Cowboy started every day as a winner! He hit the front door expecting something good to happen. He believed that things were going to go his way regardless of what happened. He had no expectation of failure, only an expectation of success. And I’ve found that when you expect success and take action on that expectation, you almost always get success.
Cowboy has made millions of dollars. He has also lost it all, only to get it all back again. In his life as in mine, it has been that once you know and practice the principles of success, they will work for you again and again.
He can also be an inspiration to you. He is proof that it’s not environment or education or technical skills and ability that make you success. He proves that it takes more: it takes the principles we so often overlook or take for granted. These are the principles of that Ya Gotta’s for success.

Question:
(1) What was the cowboy’s motto?
(2) What did the cowboy learn after he lost millions of dollars?
(3) Why did the cowboy firmly believe that asking would pay off?
(4) When you expect success and take action on that expectation you almost always succeed. [Name the part of speech of the underlined words]
(5)
(a) He cared about me and his customers. [Rewrite using ‘not only ……………….but also’’]
(b) Cowboy has made millions of dollars [Add a question tag]

(6) In what way is the cowboy a source of inspiration for you?

 


Maggu’s achievements are particularly noteworthy because – as is well known – academic institutions in India are less than sold on the idea of inclusive education. In fact, when Maggu lost her sight in class IV, her school (which she declines to name) expelled her while suggesting she attend a “blind school”. Though shocked, Maggu rejected the advice. “Attending a special school would have tarred me with a handicap forever, which was not how I saw my future. Therefore I did the rounds of other public schools with my father, a small – time merchant, explaining that my case was different Since I had vision till the age of ten,” she recalls.
Impressed by her persistence and ambition, Delhi’s Bluebells School not only admitted her but pulled out all the stops to support her in academics sporting events and also notched up a respectable 73 percent average in the class XII exam with the help of Braille, interactive textbooks and extra coaching.
The respectable average in her CBSE exam paved the way for admission into LSR where again she proved her mettle by winning medals in a slew of inter – collage events (100 200 and 400 metre sprints) high jump, long jump, javelin and discuss throw: resulting in her being declared ‘Athlete of the year’ 2003’ at a sports meet for 100 physically challenged athletes. And the cherry on the cake was the selection to the IBSA Games last year. “It was a tough regimen,” recalls Maggu. “I had to attend sports camps manage my studies and officiates as sports president. But I managed.”

Questions:
(1) What qualities of Maggu are highlighted in this passage?
(2) Why did Maggu refuse to attend a ‘blind school’?
(3) Quote the lines that show that Jyoti Maggu was good in academics as well as in sports.
(4) Use any two phrases in sentences of your own :
(a) To win laurels
(b) To pave the way
(c) To prove one’s mettle
(d) A tough regimen
(5)
(a) I did the rounds of other public schools with my father [Change the voice]
(b) though shocked Maggu rejected the advice [Rewrite as a simple sentence]
(6) Should the physically challenged be sent to special schools? Express your views.

 


India, my India, where the first human eyes awoke to heavenly light! All Asia’s holy place of pilgrimage, great Motherland of might! World – mother, first giver to humankind of philosophy and sacred lore, knowledge thou gav’st to an, God – love, works, art, religion’s opened door.
O even with all that grandeur dwarfed or turned and can vaunt thy mighty name?
Before us still there floats the idea of those splendid days of gold; a new world in our vision wakes, Love’s India we shall rise to mould. India, my India, who dare call thee a thing for pity’s grace today? Mother of wisdom, worship, works nurse of the spirit inward ray!

(1) The poem is a ……………………
    (a) Praise
    (b) Prayer
    (c) Story in the form of poem
    (d) Song of condolence [Choose the correct alternative]
(2) What has India given to the world?
(3) How does the poet visualize New India?
(4) Give the rhyme scheme of the first four lines.
(5) Name and explain the figure of speech that dominates the poem.


We sang our school fight song dozens of times – en route to Arlington National cemetery, and even on an afternoon cruise down the Potomac River. We visited the Lincoln Memorial twice, once in day – light, the second time at dusk. My classmates and I fell silent as we walked in the shadows of those 36 marble columns, one for every state in the Union that Lincoln laboured to preserve. I stood next to Frank at the base of the 19 foot seated statue. Spotlights made the white Georgian marble seem to glow. Together we read famous words from Lincoln’s speech at Gettysburg remembering the most bloody battle in the war between the status : “………….we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom………..”
As Frank motioned me into place to take my picture, I took one last look at Lincoln’s face. He seemed alive and so terribly sad.
The next morning I understand a little better why he wasn’t smiling. “Clifton,” a chaperone said, “could I see you for a moment?”

(1) When did the boys visit Lincoln Memorial?
(2) What made the Georgian marble glow?
(3) What did the words: “………. We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom …………” remind them?
(4) Do you believe in building memorials? What kind should they be, if your answer is ‘yes’? If no, give reasons why you do not believe in memorials?


How important was the presence of Miss Anne Sullivan in Helen’s life?


How did the air raids disrupt the Dutch public life?


Read the passage carefully.

1. I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

2. Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that 'the enemy' wouldn't discover me.

3. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home ‒ that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn't  let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

4. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn't like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear 'the right clothes' and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

5. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is  being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.

(b) Make a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.


Answer any two of the following questions in about 3040 words:
(a) How does Kamala Das try to put away the thoughts of her ageing mother?

(b) Which is the exotic moment that the poet refers to in 'Keeping Quiet'?

(c) What are the difficulties that aunt Jennifer faced in her life?


Answer any six of the following questions in 3040 words:

(a) Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless?

(b) Why did the peddler derive pleasure from his idea of the world as a rattrap?

(c) How is Mukesh different from the other bangle makers of Firozabad?

(d) What tempted Franz to stay away from school?

(e) Why did the maharaja ban tiger hunting in the state?

(f) How was the skunk's story different from the other stories narrated by Jack?

(g) Which words of her brother made a deep impression on Bama?


Who was Selden? Why was he on the moor?


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. Air pollution is an issue which concerns us all alike. One can willingly choose or reject a food, a drink or a life comfort, but unfortunately there is little choice for the air we breathe. All, what is there in the air is inhaled by one and all living in those surroundings.

 2. Air pollutant is defined as a substance which is present while normally it is not there or present in an amount exceeding the normal concentrations. It could either be gaseous or a particulate matter. The important and harmful polluting gases are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. The common particulate pollutants are the dusts of various inorganic or organic origins. Although we often talk of the outdoor air pollutions caused by industrial and vehicular exhausts, the indoor pollution may prove to be as or a more important cause of health problems.

 3. Recognition of air pollution is relatively recent. It is not uncommon to experience a feeling of 'suffocation' in a closed environment. It is often ascribed to the lack of oxygen. Fortunately, however, the composition of air is remarkably constant all over the world. There is about 79 per cent nitrogen and 21 per cent oxygen in the air − the other gases forming a very small fraction. It is true that carbon dioxide exhaled out of lungs may accumulate in a closed and over-crowded place. But such an increase is usually small and temporary unless the room is really air-tight. Exposure to poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide may occur in a closed room, heated by burning coal inside. This may also prove to be fatal.

 4. What is more common in a poorly ventilated home is a vague constellation of symptoms described as the sick-building syndrome. It is characterized by a general feeling of malaise, head-ache, dizziness and irritation of mucous membranes. It may also be accompanied by nausea, itching, aches, pains and depression. Sick building syndrome is getting commoner in big cities with the small houses, which are generally over-furnished. Some of the important pollutants whose indoor concentrations exceed those of the outdoors include gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and organic substances like spores, formaldehydes, hydrocarbon aerosols and allergens. The sources are attributed to a variety of construction materials, insulations, furnishings, adhesives, cosmetics, house dusts, fungi and other indoor products.

 5. By-products of fuel combustion are important in houses with indoor kitchens. It is not only the brining of dried dung and fuelwood which is responsible, but also kerosene and liquid petroleum gas. Oxides of both nitrogen and sulphur are released from their combustion.

 6. Smoking of tobacco in the closed environment is an important source of indoor pollution. It may not be high quantitatively, but significantly hazardous for health. It is because of the fact that there are over 3000 chemical constituents in tobacco smoke, which have been identified. These are harmful for human health.

 7. Micro-organisms and allergens are of special significance in the causation and spread of diseases. Most of the infective illnesses may involve more persons of a family living in common indoor environment. These include viral and bacterial diseases like tuberculosis.

 8. Besides infections, allergic and hypersensitivity disorders are spreading fast. Although asthma is the most common form of respiratory allergic disorders, pneumonias are not uncommon, but more persistent and serious. These are attributed to exposures to allergens from various fungi, molds, hay and other organic materials. Indoor air ventilation systems, coolers, air-conditioners, dampness, decay, pet animals, production or handling of the causative items are responsible for these hypersensitivity − diseases.

 9. Obviously, the spectrum of pollution is very wide and our options are limited. Indoor pollution may be handled relatively easily by an individual. Moreover, the good work must start from one’s own house

(Extracted from the Tribune)

 (a) (i) What is an air pollutant? (1)

(ii) In what forms are the air pollutants present? (2)

(iii) Why do we feel suffocated in a closed environment? (1)

(iv) What is sick building syndrome? How is it increasing? (2)

(v) How is indoor smoking very hazardous? (1)

(vi) How can one overcome the dangers of indoor air pollution? (2)

(b) Find the words from the above passage which mean the same as the following: (3)

(i) giddiness (para 4)

(ii) constant (para 8)

(iii) humidity (para 8)


Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?

(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?

(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?


Answer any three of the following questions in 30-40 words each:

(a) What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?

(b) Why does Asokamitran call Subbu, ‘a charitable and improvident man’?

(c) How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimmer?

(d) Why did Sophie like her brother, Geoff more than any other person?


There were many reasons for Helen Keller's embittered childhood. What were they and how were they overcome?


Helen's struggle has become a source of inspiration for all less fortunate. Comment.


Anne's relationship with her mother was never simple. What created the tension and discord? Why


Anne's father was close to her. What did she like about him? Why?


How did Helen Keller enjoy her visit to the World fair? (120‒150 words)


How did Helen display her passion for Radcliffe College?


Answer the following question in 120 – 150 words: 

How do you perceive Dr. Kemp based on his interaction with Griffin ? (The Invisible Man) 


Answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each:             
(a) Why did Franz not want to go to school that day?
(b) What was Sophie's ambition in life? How did she hope to achieve that?
(c) What kind of pain does Kamala Das feel in 'My Mother at Sixty-six'?
(d) How can 'mighty dead' be things of beauty?
(e) Why was the Maharaja once in danger of losing his kingdom?
(f) What was the basic plot of each story told by Jack?


Answer the following question in 120-150 words :     

Mrs. Hall is greedy but efficient in her business.

Attempt a character sketch of Mrs. Hall.


Answer any four of the following questions in 30 – 40 words each :
(a) After initial reluctance why did the lawyers tell Gandhiji that they were ready to follow him into jail?
(b) What is Mukesh's attitude towards the family business of making bangles?
(c) How does the poet show the futility of Aunt Jennifer's efforts?
(d) Stephen Spender in his poem, 'An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum' paints a dismal picture of poverty. Comment.
(e) Jackson went through the contents of Rev. McLeery's suitcase. Which object therein puzzled him sorely? What was his comment on that?
(f) How did the servants react when they realized that Dr. Sadao was going to save the life of an enemy?


Answer any four of the following in 30 − 40 words each :

(a) What does Saheb look for in the garbage dumps?

(b) How was Gandhi treated at Rajendra Prasad's house?

(c) Why does one feel 'a sudden strangeness' on counting to twelve and keeping quiet?

(d) Mention any two things which cause pain and suffering. (A Thing of Beauty)

(e) When was the Tiger King in danger of losing his throne?

(f) What role did the American professor play in bringing Hana and Sadao together?


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:  

 

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods.  The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

 

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

 

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

 

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

 

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

 

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

 

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

 

(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

 

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.

 

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. 


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

If you do not get lowered in your own eyes
While you raise yourself in those of others,
If you do not give in to gossips and lies
Rather heed them not, saying, 'who bothers?'
You may be the person I am looking for.
If you crave not for praise when you win
And look not for sympathy while you lose,
If cheers let not your head toss or spin
And after a set-back, you offer no excuse,
You may be the person I and looking for.

(1) What should be your reaction towards gossips and lies?
(2) Who are your role models? Why?
(3) Give the rhyming pairs of words from the first stanza.
(4) Which line is repeated in this extract and what is its effect?


Read the follow ing extract and answer the questions given below:

Not gold but only men can make
A people great and strong;
Men who for truth and honor's sake
Stand fast and suffer long.

Brave men who work while others sleep,
Who dare while others fly...

They build a nation's pillars deep
And lift them to the sky.

(1) What makes a nation strong?
(2) According to you, what makes India a strong and powerful nation?.
(3) Write down the rhyme scheme used in the extract.
(4) What does the phrase 'others fly ... ' mean?


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

How do you know
Peace is a woman?
 I know, for
I met her yesterday
on my winding way 
to the world's fare.
She had such a wonderful face
just like a golden flower faded
before her prime.

(1) How does the poet describe the face of peace?
(2) Do you think there is a way out of the war-ridden world? What is it?.
(3) Name and explain the figure of speech in the following line:
"I met her yesterday 
on my winding way."
(4) The poet asks the question and herself answers it. What effect does it create in the extract?


Complete the flow-chart : 


Complete the following table :


(i) The interest of Maharashtra and that of India should be one for the progress of Maharashtra state, because ................

 


Complete the following statements :

(ii) Maharashtra depends on India, because ................

 


Read the following extract and then do all the activities that follow :

I rain into a stranger as he passed by
“Oh, excuse me please” was my reply.
He said, “please excuse me too; wasn't even watching for you.”
We were very polite, this stranger and I.
We went on out way and we said good-bye.
But at home a different story is told.
How we treat out loved ones, young and old.
Later that day, cooking the evening meal,
My daughter stood beside me very still.
When I turned, I nearly knoked her down.
“Move out of the way,” I said with a frown.
She walked away, her little heart broken.
I didn't realize how harshly I'd spoken.
While I lay awake in bed,
God's still small voice came to me and said,
“While Dealing with a stranger, common courtesy you use,
But children you love, you seem to abuse.”

A1. Order- 
The incidents narrated in the extract are arranged in a jumbled manner here, Rearrange them in a proper order as they occur in the extract:
(i) The poet and the stranger went on their way saying good-bye.
(ii) Seeking excuse politely from the stranger, she went her way.
(iii) The poet ran into a stranger on the road.
(iv) The poet yelled at her daughter.

A2. Poetic device:
Make a list of rhyming pairs from the second stanza and note down the rhyme scheme of the same stanza.

A3. Personal Response:
Understanding and politeness are the essentials of out everyday life. Explain your views in brief.

A4. Creativity -
Frame two poetic lines on the following situation using a rhyming pattern with the help of clues given:
“While introducing great personalities, we praise them highly and talk about their qualities, but while speaking
about our friends we may not follow the same trend.”
While introducing great personalities, — a
------------------------------------ — a
But while speaking about our friends, — b
------------------------------------ — b


Read the extract and do the activities that follow:
The duke senior and his follower were sitting down to a meal one day when Orlando rushed out from among the trees, his sword in his hand. ‘Stop, and cat no more!’ he cried. The Duke and his friends asked him what he wanted.
‘Food,’ said Orlando. ‘I am almost dying of hunger’. They asked him to sit down and eat, but he would not do so. He told them that his old servant was in the woods, dying of hunger. ‘I will not eat a bite until he has been fed,’ Orlando said.
So the good Duke and his followers helped him to bring Adam to their hiding-place, and Orlando and the old man were fed and taken care of. When the Duke learned that Orlando was a son of his old friend sir Rowland de Boys, he welcomed him gladly to his forest court.
Orlando lived happily with the Duke and his friends, but he had not forgotten the lovely Rosalind. She was always in his thoughts andevery day he wrote poetry about her pinning it on the trees in the forest. ‘These trees shall be my books,’ he said, ‘so that everyone who looks in the forest will be able to read how sweet and good Rosalind is’.
Rosalind and Celia found some of these poems pinned on the trees. At first they were puzzled, wondering who could have written them; but one day Celia came in from a walk with the news that she had seen Orlando sleeping under a tree, and she and Rosalind guessed that he must be the poet. Rosalind was happy to think that Orlando had not forggoten her, because she loved him as much as he loved her.

A1. Complete - (2)
Complete the following sentences:
(i) Rosalind was happy to think _______
(ii) The Duke and his followers helped Orlando to bring _________
(iii) Orlando pinned the poems written about Rosalind on ______
(iv) When the Duke cam to know that Orlando was a son of his old friend, he _________

A2. Write a gist: (2)
Write a gist of the above given extract in about 50 words.


After the convocation, Mrs. Mini, Rahul’s mother and Rahul have a conversation. Write the conversation and present it to the class in groups of three.


In ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’ how did the Franks and others celebrate two festivals, Hanukkah and St.  Nicholas Day in the Annexe ? 


We know that chimps are intelligent because 


Orangutans use big leaves during a downpour because


The black kite may start a fire because


Why are animals considered as intelligent as humans ? 


What do elephants do to prevent water from evaporating ? 


Give an example from the passage that proves the crow to be an intelligent bird.


What inference can you draw from the action of the female gorilla described in para 2 ? 


How is the social life at Raveloe different from that at Lantern Yard ? 


Dolly Winthrop has a very noble nature. Comment.


Griffin failed not only as a son and a scientist, but also as a human being. Comment. (The Invisible Man) 


How did Griffin meet his end ? 


Read the following passage and complete the activities given below:

A1. Name the following: With reference to the passage.
(i) Two people who influenced Mashelkar ________.
(ii) The trust which granted a scholarship to Mashelkar _______.
(iii) The Director of the Board of Tata Motors _______.
(iv) Principal Bhave demonstrated _______.
 
In fact, I remember, my passing the SSC Examination – i.e. 11th standard. Those days it used to be not 10th standard or 12th standard but 11th standard. I stood 11th among 1,35,000 but I was about to leave higher education and find a job. What helped me was the scholarship by Sir Dorab Tata Trust. It was just 60 rupees per month and would you believe that 60 rupees per month from Tatas added so much value to my life that I have been able to stand here today before you to speak to you.
I am on the Board of Tatas now and it is very interesting that the same Bombay House where I used to go to collect that 60 rupees per month now one goes and sits there as a Director on the Board of Tata Motors. The turn that these 40 years have taken is very interesting. It has all been possible because of the chance I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother. She gave me the values of my life. She was one of the noblest parents I have met in my life. So, my greatest guru was my mother. My second great guru was Principal Bhave, about whom I made a mention earlier. He taught us Physics. Because it was a poor school, I remember, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of Science. I still remember one of the interesting experiences when, on a Friday afternoon, Principal Bhave took us out into the sun to demonstrate to us how to find the focal length of a convex lens. He had a piece of paper here, a convex lens here and he moved it up and down and there was a point when there were a sharp focus and a bright spot on the paper.
He showed the distance between the paper and the lens and said that this distance was the focal length. But then the paper started burning. For some reason, he then turned to me, and said, “Mashelkar, if you focus your energies like this, you can burn anything in the world.”
 
A2. Supply the information from the passage.
(i) Mashelkar could continue his studies because ________.
(ii) The teaching of Principal Bhave’s experiment was ________.
(iii) Mashelkar considers his mother as the greatest Guru because ________.
(iv) The paper started burning because ________.
 
A3 Word Register (from the passage) 
Prepare a word register for the word Education
 
A4 Modal Auxiliary
(i) I used to go to collect 60 rupees per month.
(Rewrite the sentence using Modal Auxiliary ‘would’)
(ii) Reported Speech:
Principal Bhave said, “Mashelkar if you focus your energies like this, you can burn anything in the world.”
(How will Mashelkar report this to his friend?)
 
A5 Personal Response
What is the role played by our parents in shaping our careers?

Read the following passage and do the activities:
A1 True or False:
Rewrite the following statements and state whether they are ‘true’ or ‘false’.
(i) Mashelkar’s mother did menial work to bring him up.
(ii) Mashelkar’s father died when he was twelve.
(iii) Mashelkar was born in a very rich family.
(iv) Tatas added much value to Mashelkar’s life. 

I start with my greatest guru-my mother. I was born in a very poor family and my father died when I was six. We moved to Mumbai and my mother did menial work to bring me up. Two meals a day was a tough challenge. I studied under street lights and I walked barefoot until, I think, I was twelve. I remember when I passed the seventh standard and I wanted to go into the eighth standard, our poverty was such that even to secure 21 rupees for secondary school admission became a big challenge. We had to borrow from a lady, who was a housemaid in Chaupati in Mumbai. That was the tough life I had.

In fact, I remember, my passing the SSC Examination-i.e. 11th standard. Those days it used to be not 10th standard or 12th standard but 11th standard. I stood 11th among 1,35,000 but I was about to leave higher education and find a job. What helped me was the scholarship by Sir Dorab Tata Trust. It was just 60 rupees per month and would you believe that 60 rupees per month from Tatas added so much value to my life that I have been able to stand here today before you to speak to you.

 I am on the Board of Tatas now and it is very interesting that the same Bombay House where I used to go to collect that 60 rupees per month now one goes and sits there like a Director on the Board of Tata Motors. The turn that these 40 years have taken is very interesting. It has all been possible because of the chance I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother. She gave me the values of my life. She was one of the noblest parents I have met in my life.

So, my greatest guru was my mother. My second guru was Principal Bhave, about whom I made a mention earlier. He taught us Physics. Because it was a poor school, I remember, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of Science. 

A2  Complete: 
 Complete the following sentences and write:
(i) Mashelkar was inspired by his greatest guru _______
(ii) Mashelkar studied under _______
(iii) Principal Bhave taught _______
(iv) The scholarship by _______ Trust helped him in higher education. 

A3 Find the meaning:
Choose the appropriate meaning of the underlined words from the given alternatives:
(i)
We moved to Mumbai and my mother did menial work.
(a) skilled
(b) hard
(c) unskilled
(d) of low status

(ii) Because it was a poor school, it had to innovate to convey to the young students the message of science.
(a) do a cheap experiment
(b) introduce new things
(c) avoid
(d) try hard

(iii) I got to do higher studies at the insistence of my mother.
(a) firm saying
(b) being inspired
(c) being inspected
(d) being instigated 

(iv) That was the tough life I had.
(a) difficult
(b) soft
(c) cheap
(d) simple 

A4  Match:
Match the following sentences with their tags: 

  'A'   'B'
(i) I stood 11th 
 among 1,35,000 
(a) aren’t I? 
(ii) I am on the Board of Tatas  (b)  didn’t we? 
(iii) It was a poor school  (c) didn’t I? 
(iv) We moved to Mumbai  (d)  wasn’t it? 

A5  Personal Response: 
 “Mother is the greatest Guru.” Discuss.


Read the following extract and complete the activities given below : 
A1  Compare the old and new house and complete the table : 

Points Old House New House
Surrounding razzle-dazzle
Size of the house big

I was thirteen, the year we moved to the Cantonment at Allahabad. In stark contrast to the razzle-dazzle of the city’s commercial areas like Katra and Chowk, the Cantonment was a quiet, orderly place with broad tree-lined roads that still carried the names of long-dead Britishers. Our bungalow was on a sleepy by-lane called MacPherson Road. When we first saw it, my brothers and I were delighted. It was by far the biggest house we had ever lived in. The task of furnishing those huge, echoing rooms daunted mother.

“Is a slightly smaller house not available?” she asked father, “We do not have enough curtains for this place. And the furniture seems a little inadequate. Why did they have to plan the kitchen at such a distance from the dining-room? It is like doing a route march. And who is going to help me keep this place clean and dusted?”
 Her misgivings and objections were undoubtedly valid. But, seeing our crestfallen faces, she sighed and gave in. We made extravagant promises to help in the household chores. Keep our rooms tidy. Put away our toys and books. She smiled with amused disbelief, her mind already working out how many meters of curtain-cloth would be needed and so on. 

A2  Complete :
Complete the following list of objections that the mother had with the new house :
(i) Inadequate _______ 
(ii) Do not have _______
(iii) Kitchen at a distance from _______
(iv) A very big _______ 

A3 Personal response:
Do you agree with the objections raised by the mother? Explain. 


Read the following passage carefully and do the given activities:
A.1) True or False:

Write the statements and state whether they are true or false:
(i)
Those who choose to live well must help others.
(ii)
If neighbors grow inferior corn, cross-pollination will steadily improve the quality.
(iii)
The farmer grew award-winning corn.
(iv)
The reporter discovered that the farmer didn’t share his seed corn with his neighbors. 

             There once was a farmer who grew award-winning corn. Each year he entered his corn in the state fair where it won a blue ribbon. One year a newspaper reporter interviewed him and learned something interesting about how he grew it. The reporter discovered that the farmer shared his sweet corn with his neighbors. “How can you afford to share your best seed corn with your neighbors when they are entering corn in competition with yours each year?” the reporter asked. 
             “Why sir”, said the farmer, “didn’t you know? The wind picks up pollen from the ripening corn and swirls it from field to field. If my neighbors grow inferior corn, cross-pollination will steadily degrade the quality of my corn. If I am to grow good corn, I must help my neighbors grow good corn.” He is very much aware of the connectedness of life. His corn cannot improve unless his neighbor's corn also improves. So it is with our lives. Those who choose to live in peace must help their neighbors to live in peace. Those who choose to live well must help others to live well, for the value of a life is measured by the lives it touches.
              The lesson for each of us is this: if we are to grow good corn, we must help our neighbors grow good corn. 

A.2) Consequences:
Write the consequences:
(i) The farmer shares the corn. 
(ii) The farmer doesn’t share the corn. 

A.3) Antonyms:
Find out the words opposite in meaning from the passage: 
(i)
superior x _______ 
(ii)
lost x _______ 
(iii)
improve x _______ 
(iv)
inconstantly x _______ 

A.4)  Language study:
(i)
We must help our neighbors. (Replace the modal auxiliary showing advice). 
(ii) The wind picks up pollen from ripening corn and swirls it field to field. (Use “not only…….. but also” and rewrite)

A.5)  Personal Response: 
What do you learn from the story? Suggest a suitable title.


Attempt the following question in 100 – 150 words.
What do you think about Anne’s talent for writing essays which she wrote convincingly when punished by the teacher?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
How did Kitty help Anne overcome her loneliness?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
What is the main theme of 'The Diary of a Young Girl'?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
Helen had a great love for animals and birds. Write about this aspect of her character.


Answer the following question in 150-200 words:
Attempt a character sketch of Mr. Gilman.


Mention three reasons why the author’s grandmother was disturbed when he started going to the city school.


Mention the odd way in which the author’s grandmother behaved just before she died.


The author’s grandmother was a religious person. What are the different ways in which we come to know this?


How would you say ‘a dilapidated drum’ in your language?


Can you think of a song or a poem in your language that talks of homecoming?


Does the poem have a consistent rhyme scheme?


The poet’s mother laughed at the snapshot. What did this laugh indicate?


Describe the mental condition of the voyagers on 4 and 5 January.


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
ducking back


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
manoeuvres


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
billowed


Give reasons for the following statement.
The author was disappointed with Darchen.


Guess the meaning of the following word:
Kora
In which language are these word found? 


Combine related points.


Look for pictures in newspapers and magazines that depict the urban civic problems discussed in the text. Cut them out and pin them to the text at appropriate places.


Tick the statement that is true.

The story is an account of real events.


Tick the statement that is true.

The story hinges on a particular historical event.


Tick the statement that is true.

The story tries to relate history to Science.


Discuss the following statement in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.

A single event may change the course of the history of a nation.


Astrologers' perceptions are based more on hearsay and conjecture than what they learn from the study of the stars. Comment with reference to the story.


There is mention of three communities in the story: the Marathas, the Mughals, the Anglo-Indians. Which language do you think they used within their communities and while speaking to the other groups?


Indian society has moved a long way from the way the marriage is arranged in the story. Discuss.


Do you think that the ruled always adopts the language of the ruler?


The school system often curbs individual talents. Discuss.


You will probably agree that this story does not have breathless adventure and exciting action. Then what in your opinion makes it interesting?


Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid?


What impression of the character of Iona do you get from this story?


Comment on the graphic detail with which the various passengers who took Iona's cab are described.


This play, written in the 1950s, is a humorous and satirical depiction of the status of the mother in the family.
Do you think it caricatures these issues or do you think that the problems it raises are genuine? How does the play resolve the issues? Do you agree with the resolution?


Is drama a good medium for conveying a social message? Discuss.


Read the play out in parts. Enact the play on a suitable occasion.


What do you understand of the natures of Ramanand and Azam Khan from the episode described?


Identify instances in the story that show the business acumen of Ramanand.


“I have done something; oh, God! I've done something real at last.” Why does Andrew say this? What does it mean?


There lies a great difference between text book medicine and the world of practising physician. Discuss.


Locate expressions in the text reflect the Indian idiom, for example, the pride of the generations of his ancestors.


We 'draw up a deed'. Complete the following phrase with an appropriate word.

________one's word


We 'draw up a deed'. Complete the following phrase with an appropriate word.

________one's will


How, according to you, can peace and liberty be maintained in a state?


Examine the communication channels in the story between Paul and Bassett.


‘The Tale of Melon City’ has been narrated in a verse form. This is a unique style which lends extra charm to an ancient tale. Find similar examples in your language. Share them in the class.


Explain the line:
'I seemed to detect in myself a sort of sneaking fellow-feeling for the mummy in the museum, and a desire to swap news with him.


Explain the line:
She makes too much steam–you want to hang the monkey wrench on the safety valve!


How do the patterns of creativity displayed by scientists differ from those displayed by poets?


'Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world'.


What distinguishes the tribal imagination from the secular imagination?


How does the connection drawn between the tail and the eyes add to the descriptive detail of the poem?


What, according to Ruskin, are the limitations of the good book of the hour?


Comment on the use of the phrase ‘fresh-peeled voice’.


The text is an excerpt from Sesame and Lilies which consists of two essays, primarily, written for delivery as public lectures in 1864. Identify the features that fit the speech mode. Notice the sentence patterns.


State the central issue in the poem.


The power of poetry lies in suggestion and understatement. Discuss this with reference to the poem.


Why does the poet prefer to be a primitive Pagan rather than a member of civilised society?


What do you understand of the three voices in response to the question 'What does a novel do' ?


Discuss the importance of time in the narration of a story.


Discuss in pairs or in small groups
'Our daily life reflects a double allegiance to 'the life in time' and 'the life by values'.


How does Forster use the analogy of Scheherazade to establish his point ?


Explain the undertones in the statement:

'Wife and husband in unusual rapport

State one unspoken thought':


How does the poet juxtapose the human condition with the behaviour of the political class?


What were the concepts that Kumudini Lakhia represent through Duvidha, Atah Kim and panch Paras?


Discuss the following in pairs or in small groups.
Exceptionally talented people are born so; talent cannot be cultivated


'Whose roots lay deeper than our lives' – what aspect of human behaviour does this line reflect?


Distinguish between the following pairs of words

Incredulous - Incredible
Suspicious - Susceptible
Sensitivity - Sentimentality
Successive - Successful

Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a small group of close friends and have no wish to interact with anyone else.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a small group of close friends and have no wish to interact with anyone else.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have cordial relationships with all but I cannot connect with anyone.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

In order to tidy the room, Jo __________________.


Give a brief account of the interaction between Grandpa and Jo.


Read the extract and state whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The author is an example of ‘reverse migration’.


Fill in the blank.

Baban’s father and some elders mentioned the name of __________.


Rearrange the letters to make meaningful words, occurring in the poem.

  1. clearmis ____________
  2. sowmid ____________
  3. gearuoc ____________
  4. rissupser ____________
  5. tabyue __________________
  6. madres ____________
  7. laveu ____________
  8. downre ____________

Find from the story one word for the following.

the highest-ranking official who commands a ship____________


Make groups and discuss the following:

What inspired them to spend the best part of their lives to research and share their findings?


Think and answer in your own words.

What could be the age group of the speaker in the poem?


The best punishment is ‘forgiveness’. Discuss the sentence in light of the text you have read. You can make use of the following points.

(a) Forgiveness provides an opportunity to change the behaviour.

(b) Forgiveness leads to repentance.

(c) A person may commit a mistake/crime impulsively or under the force of strong emotions.

(d) ________________________

(e) ________________________


complete the following sentence.

Ajoy reported about ________________.


The word 'report' means -

(a) Give a spoken or written account of something.

(b) Cover an event or subject as a journalist or reporter.


Make a list of the preparations made for an assault on Tiger Hill.

After confirming the multidirectional assault as the best strategy the commanding officer ________________.


Make a list of the preparations made for an assault on Tiger Hill.

Individual guns ___________.


Now write what you observe in the following two pictures.


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The cherry tree did not take long to grow.


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

Birds and insects were benefitted from the tree.


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The poem has an underlying message about the importance of trees.


Find proof from the poem for the following.

The poet’s minute observations of the steady growth of the cherry tree.


Find proof from the poem for the following.

The struggle of the cherry tree for survival.


The cherry tree has inspired the poet to compose the poem. Such poems, describing Nature or aspects of Nature are called ‘Nature poems’. Find out some expressions from the poem that bring out the elements of the beauty of Nature.


Discuss with your partner and complete the web, highlighting the sad and gloomy aspects of life mentioned in the first part of the poem.


You might have visited a bridge. Complete the web describing the sights you could see from the bridge.


State whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The Ear was appointed as a judge.


Read the poem and complete the web about the activities the planners do.


Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

Planners make their plans mathematically perfect, at the same time they calculate their profit.


Read the expression:

‘the blueprint of our past’s tomorrow’. Consider in a group why the poet has not mentioned ‘the present’. It is because of the planners who have possessed our ‘present’ in order to change ‘our past’ into the ‘future’ they desire. Go through the poem and write the lines which support this thought.

  1. The buildings are in alignment with the roads which meet at desired points.
  2. ____________________________________________
  3. ____________________________________________
  4. ____________________________________________
  5. ____________________________________________
  6. ____________________________________________.

Pick out the statements which aptly depict the theme of the poem.

  1. In the poem, the speaker memorises the past.
  2. In ‘The Planners’ the poet describes the unstoppable force of modernisation.
  3. The poet talks about the replacement of natural environment by the concrete jungle.
  4. The poet proposes to stop modernisation.
  5. The poet laments helplessly.

Read the first and second stanza of the poem. We understand that the poet wants to suggest the powerful dominance of the planners who shape the town according to their selfish desires. Make a list of such expressions. You may begin with -

  1. All the spaces are gridded, filled with permutations of possibilities.
  2. ________________________________
  3. ________________________________
  4. ________________________________

Write 3 to 4 lines about the following in your own words.

The Robotic Surgery


Proverbs associated with the word season: for eg: Make hay while the sun shines.

  1. _________________________
  2. _________________________

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

One should eat to live, not live to eat - Franklin.


Expansion of Idea:

Expand the following idea in about 100-150 words by using the points.

'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'.

  • Meaning of the proverb
  • Significance of the proverb
  • Add your own points.

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

Fools rush in where angels fear to tread - Alexander Pope.


We all know that blogs can be written on many topics. Your teacher will divide the class into groups and assign a task to every group to make a list of various topics on which blogs are normally written. One is given to you.

  • Social Awareness
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • ________________

Say the following words aloud and put the stress mark on the stressed syllables.

crea-tures
bur-den
me-cha-nic
e-xe-cu-tor
de-li-ve-ring
ma-gis-trate


Use the following words/phrases to make sentences of your own.
enthusiasm
to lope off
fraud
clarity
amiable
to come to terms with 
conveyance


Read the following phrase and use them in a sentence of your own in proper form.

  • To voice something
  • a tight corner
  • to outwit 
  • to concede defeat

Say with reason, whether the following statement is true or false.

Akbar wanted to punish the person who pulled his mustache.


Form pairs and decide whether the following statements are those of a Great Indian Bustard or not.

Statements Great Indian Bustard Some Other Bird
(a) I am the heaviest flying bird in India.    
(b) I am known as Maldhok or Hoom in Marathi.    
(c) I live in mountainous regions.    
(d) I don’t like grasshoppers or beetles.    
(e) We don’t believe in building nests.    
(f) Our chick stays with the mother for a period of nearly one year.    
(g) I am the State bird of Maharashtra.    
(h) We have been pushed away from more than 90 percent of our home regions.    

With the help of the internet and other sources, obtain more information about the critically endangered birds and animals in India. Find the names of their sanctuaries.


Fill in the gap, choosing word from the option to make appropriate comparison.

as ____________as an elephant


Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

Your very close friend has been using a fake social media account to play pranks on others and is not ready to stop in spite of several attempts by you.


Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

One particular friend of yours is always late for college, social functions, movies, etc. and delays everyone.


Read and prepare a small presentation in about 100 to 150 words on the ideas of any two philosophers given below.

  • Sant Dnyaneshwar
  • Gautam Buddha
  • Aurobindo Ghosh
  • Kahlil Gibran
  • Socrates.

Discuss with your teacher how/why are ‘stars’ given to a movie.


'It all builds on the charm of the 1967 film, which by itself is a must-watch for any child.'

Explain this sentence in the context of the movie, focusing on the two given phrases- 'Charm of the 1967 film' and 'must-watch'.


Read the given words and share with your friend what comes to your mind.



Name any four periods of History of British Drama.


Compare the features of a comedy and tragedy.


State the difference between drama and novel.


Define drama.


Comment on the given statement after reading the given dialogue -

And if we get him itself, nothing but abuse on our heads for it from the people, and maybe from our own relations -

you may begin like this

We do not think about society at large _________________________________________________.


Comment on the given statement after reading the given dialogue -

It’s a pity some honest man not to be better of that ________________________________________________.


The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is a brave but irresponsible person.


The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is a major character. He dominates in the story.


The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is obedient and simple.


Match the columns :

A B
(1) Theseus (1) Robin Goodfellow
(2) Titania (2) Queen of the Amazons
(3) Puck (3) Duke of Athens
(4) Hippolyta (4) Faeries
(5) Cobweb, Moth (5) Queen of the Faeries

Correct the given sentence with justification.

The play is restricted to only a part of the woods.


Correct the given sentence with justification.

Since there is a reference to the Indian boy, there are some scenes from India too.


State whether the following statement is True or False:

Lysander and Demetrius fall in love with Helena as a result of the love potion.


Shakespeare’s poetry has come to be valued for its own sake on the stage. Comment with reference to the play ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream.’


Describe in your own words the incident when Hovstad's real intention to help Dr. Stockmann is exposed.


Discuss the following question after you have seen a presentation of the ‘ad’.

How many times is the name Krispy Krunchy repeated in the ad? Why?


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

Because your father can't do without my help.


Present the information in the box ‘My Teacher says’. Translate the box ‘My Teacher says’ into your mother tongue.


Who do you think benefits most from commercial advertisements?


Discuss and write 1-2 lines about the following.

Yonamine’s fight with Bushi (disguised as a bandit).


‘Smart Answers’: Form a large group. Each person asks the next one a question to get him to say ‘yes’ or ‘no’. He/She can use appropriate statements, requests, or even other questions as a response. But if he/she says ‘yes’ or ‘no’, he/she is out. Otherwise, he/she continues the game. Questions cannot be repeated.


Rewrite the poem in the form of a prose passage.


What is your favourite time of the day? Describe it in detail.


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Look, here’s something for you.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“I would rather not go to the party.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Would you lend me this, just this?”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“What! ... how ! ... That’s impossible! ”


Complete the following table.

No. Utterance Who said it To whom When
(a) I touched it in the hall at the ministry. ___________ ___________ ___________
(b) It will give us time to look some more. ___________ ___________ ___________
(c) I might have needed it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(d) You must have made a mistake ___________ ___________ ___________
(e) Well, I lost it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(f) Mine was an imitation. ___________ ___________  ___________

Find out the following with the help of your teacher and the internet.

  • Seasonal Rains (monsoon) in India and other countries.

Talk about your favourite season. (A one-minute activity.)


Read the passage and name the following.

He persuaded Helen to elope with him.


Read the passage and name the following.

She was the wife of King Menelaus.


Find pairs of rhyming words from the poem.


Think and answer:

Why are the sights said to ‘fly’?


Guess the meaning of the following words:

  • exorbitantly 
  • precautions
  • unauthorised
  • repeatedly
  • enthusiastically

Write the smaller and related words that you see within these words.


You want to start human settlement somewhere else other than the earth, in the universe. Will you select a star or a planet? Why? What features supporting life will you look for? Try to find answers to such questions and make a presentation using scientific information and your imagination.


List the names of body parts used in the passage.


Form groups of 5-8. This passage tells us only what the compère says. Try to visualize and write what the other people on the dais must have said in their speeches (Write only the main points.)

  • The School Principal
  • The Chief Guest
  • The Art teacher who offered a vote of thanks

From any collection of classic poetry or the internet, find another famous poem by Robert Frost titled ‘Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening’. Try to understand the symbolism used in that poem in 8-10 lines.


Choose the correct alternative.

The table-tennis set was gifted by____________.


The poet uses a free, conversational style in his poem. It is also called Colloquial style.

Pick out and write down such lines or expressions that support the above statement.

  1. ______ you have not done what I asked.
  2. _______________________.
  3. _______________________.
  4. _______________________.
  5. _______________________.
  6. _______________________.

Write in your own words.

What does the poet miss?


Say whether you agree or disagree.

The wolf could not trace Bertha because she was behind a myrtle bush.


List the various ways of avoiding the errors mentioned in the passage.


Fill in the blank choosing the appropriate word/idiom from the lesson.

In the examination, I did not know the answer, so I ______.


Read the story ‘Lord Emsworth and the Girl Friend’ by P. G. Wodehouse.


Who said the following, to whom, and when?

“He dwells within a cave of Himalaya.”


Pick out Archaic words from the poem and give their modern equivalents.

  Archaic Words Modern Equivalents
(a)    
(b)    
(c)    
(d)    
(e)    

Activities

List 5 of the sounds that you like and 5 of the sounds that you don’t like.


Why is Great January annoyed with Holena and her mother? Does he help them?


Guess the meaning of the following word.

pounced


Read the poem aloud using proper intonation.


Answer the following question.

Was it right for the youngest brother to ask for a share in the money? Why?


Activities.

Write a short note /story based on the ill effects of pollution.


In what way can we help to reduce or minimize waste generation?
Discuss the issue in groups of 4 or 5 and note down all good suggestions.
Resolve to follow them yourself. Some have been given below for your reference.

  • Don’t waste food.
  • Take as much as you want but finish everything that’s on your plate.
  • Don’t throw away broken or half-used things. Repair them and use them.
  • Avoid things which can be used only once.
    For example: thermocol (polysterene) cups, plastic glasses, etc.
  • Reuse!
  • Recycle!

What does the poet want to know from the goldfish?


What is meant by ‘Honour the white cane’?


Find a word that has a similar meaning.

happily-


Guess the meaning of:

dreary-


How did the bird try to reach its parents without having to fly?


Mahatma Gandhi, Che Guevera, Guru Nanak, and Gauthama Buddha are some of the famous personalities and thinkers who made extensive journeys to understand life. Do you think journeys can be life-changing?


Read the following line from the poem and answer the question that follow.

So let the way wind up the hill or down, O'er rough or smooth, the journey will be joy: Still seeking what I sought when but a boy, New friendship, high adventure, and a crown,

  1. How is the way of life?
  2. How should be the journey of life?
  3. What did the poet seek as a boy?

Answer the following question in about 100-150 word.

Narrate the extensive search operation made by the policemen in the house.


Who is wise according to you?


Read the following incident carefully to answer the question that follow.

The tie that does not bind

“Oh, so you’re going abroad? Can you bring me back…..?” I’ve been asked to bring back a vaccine for a course. Once I searched the suburbs of Paris for two days for a special brand of ceramic paint. Having spent a lot of money for Cartier lighter refills, I had them confiscated at the airport just before boarding because the gas might be dangerous in the air.

Now, two months before a trip, I stop talking to people so they won’t suspect I’m about to travel. But someone always catches me.” I’ve heard you’re going to New York, and I want you to get something for me. It’s just a little thing you can find anywhere. I don’t know exactly how much it costs, but it shouldn’t be much. We’ll settle up when you get back”.

What Gilson asked me to buy was, in fact, a little thing: a tie. But not just any tie. He wanted a tie with a small embroidered G. Any colour would do, as long as it had his initials. Look, this is a special flight, I explained. We are only staying Saturday through Tuesday. On the day we arrived I didn’t have time to think about the tie, but strolling around on Sunday I did see ties bearing various letters in more than one shop window. They were cheap, just a dollar, but all the shops were closed.

On Monday, lunch lasted the whole afternoon. Then it was Tuesday morning, time to leave. It was only when I saw our airport bus waiting outside the hotel that I remembered the tie.

I told the group to go on. I would get a taxi to the airport. And so I went in search of a nearby shop where I had seen ties.

But I couldn’t find it. I walked further down the street-one, two, three blocks - all in vain. Back at the hotel, a bit anxious now, I took my suitcase, got a taxi and asked the driver to rush to the street where I had seen them.

The driver stopped at each shop we passed so I could look from the window. The stores had all sorts of ties, but not the kind I was looking for.

When I finally thought I had located the right shop, I decided to go in and check. The driver refused to wait. Parking was prohibited, he said. I promised to double the fare, jumped out and ran into the shop. Was I going to miss the plane just for a damned tie?

The salesman was unbearably slow. When I realized that the smallest change I had was a ten dollar note , I grabbed ten ties of different colours so I wouldn’t have to wait for change. I rushed out with the ties in a paper bag.

On the street I looked around. The taxi had vanished, taking my suitcase. What is more, I was going to miss the plane.

I ran to the corner, and hope flared up again: the taxi was waiting in the next street. Quick to the airport! As I settled down inside the taxi. I sighed with relief. Gilson was going to have enough initialized ties to last him a lifetime.

When I reached the airport, I paid the taxi driver the double fare and grabbed my suitcase. Panting, I boarded the plane under the reproachful gaze of the other passengers, all primly seated with their seat belts fastened. Ready to take off. Departure had been delayed because of me.

“At least I hope you found your tie”, said one who knew the story.
“I did”, I answered triumphantly.
After making myself comfortable, I reached for the paper bag to show the ties.
I had left it behind; in the taxi.

Fernando Sabino.

Read the incident again and answer the following question.

What was the writer always asked to do whenever he planned to go abroad?


Read the incident again and answer the following question.

What did Gilson want the writer to bring for him?


Answer the following question in about 80-120 word.

Write a paragraph on ‘The Grumble Family’ and their attitude towards other folks.


Identify the speaker/character.

‘Come in, Zigzag, come in dear!’


What do Tamil Nadu folk dances and folk arts represent?


How were offerings carried during the ancient period?


Bring out a few differences between the two art forms: Therukoothu and Bommalattam.


In New York, Mr. Scotti left the plane because he thought he.


He decided to find his cousins’ home without their help. He asked the policeman for information in Italian because he.


Based on your reading, rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence.

  1. Since all her methods failed, finally she gave him a pain-killer.
  2. He told his aunt that Peter had no aunt, so he gave him the medicine.
  3. The pain-killer triggered adverse reactions on Peter.
  4. It jumped out of the open window.
  5. Tom was dull and depressed.
  6. This incident upset Aunt Polly and she questioned him.
  7. But, Tom gave that painkiller to the cat Peter.
  8. So, Aunt Polly tried different types of remedies on him.

Why did Shepherd-Barron reduce the PIN number from six digits to four?


Which theory of Ramanujan helps the ATMs to dispense cash?


What game did Anne choose to play?


Which gift did Anne value the most?


‘Finally the day had come’. Here the day refers to ______.


‘My tongs are like a tiger among toys.’ It means ______


Read the comic strip and answer the following question.

Which website do you often access? Why?


What do you think are the two most important lessons that the speaker mentions?


They may have______ in______.

  1. soft
  2. vain
  3. fear
  4. joy
  5. love
  6. heard
  7. toiled
  8. mild
  9. good
  10. sand
  11. life
  12. harsh

How does Alice feel after all these changes?


Role play

Put students in pairs to role-play a conversation between:

  • Alice and her sister.
  • Alice and White Rabbit.

Look at the number pattern. Fill the blank in the middle of the series or end of the series.

QPO, NML, KJI, ______, EDC


stained by - mark made on clothes or materials

The white washed walls were stained by many monsoons. ______


Read the poem aloud in groups.


Read the line and answer the question.

And all I ask is a merry yarn from a laughing fellow rover.

What kind of human company does the poet want?


Female Olive Ridleys come ashore at night to lay eggs.


Ridleys come to lay their eggs in the month of January.


In India’s coastal waters we can see a species of ______.


Read the poem aloud in pairs.


Rearrange the following jumbled sentences in the correct order.

  • Payal’s house was a home for abandoned animals. 
  • It was a small ball of brown and grey.
  • She found an owlet in one corner.
  • Payal’s mother picked her up gently.
  • Payal’s mother opened the carton.
  • One day they got a carton.

What does the teak tree give us?


The little bird found a shallow hollow in the ground.


Complete the sentence given below with word/phrase.

The hole became ______ and ______.


The wild boar settled down scraping the hole into a ______ to have a good sleep.


Where did the space shuttle land?


Jaswant managed to kill _________ Chinese soldiers.


Read scene I of the play carefully and answer the question below.

Whom does Mother Wolf talk about? How does she describe him?


Robot asked Vicky to sell him to an ______ master.


Vicky was an active boy.


Mother nature gives everything for all ______.


The bird catcher’s clothes were dry.


The bird-catcher decided to sit under the ________.


Name the character or speaker.

“How did I win the competition with a single stroke?”


How were her strokes?


What was their new hobby?


The message was to gather on ______.


What was the message on the chit?


Answer the following yes or no question.

Did Appu share guava?


Divide the following word.

butter


Fill in the blank

He is rich ______ he looks simple.


Do you like this kind of world?


In which season is ice cream popular?


Read the passage carefully and answer the following question.

What did the farmer find in the field?


The Delhi government did not allow blind children to study Science after ____________.


If the fisher draws his net soon, he won’t get ______ in the net.


Match with the opposite gender.

1. prince bridegroom
2. hero princess
3. bride heroine

The fir tree was not happy with the gold leaves ______.


What did Nasruddin boast about?


What would you have done if your grandmother would have slipped?


Name a few things that sink.


What does the earth do when the day is over?


Are these sentence TRUE or FALSE

The poet tells the child to be afraid when it is dark.


Who was Hiawatha?


How was the stump of the tree useful?


Choose the right word.

This famous tree is in ______.


Choose the right word.

Tansen was a famous ______.


Write the related words as shown in the example:


Write the related words as shown in the example.


Read the passage carefully and complete the activities: 

1. Complete the following sentences. (2)

  1. Female sparrows lay ____________
  2. Sparrows build their nest out of __________.
  3. The eggs are ________.
  4. In cities, sparrows build their nest in ______

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

2. How do sparrows take bathe? (2)

3. Find out adjectives for the following nouns from the passage. (2)

  1. ________ Song
  2. ________ Water
  3. ________ Bird
  4. ________ species

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world.
    (Underline the subordinate clause)
  2. Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time.
    (Frame a ‘wh’ type question to get the underlined part as an answer.)

5. ‘We have to save the birds.’ Do you agree with this statement? Why? (2)


Read the passage and write a summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to the summary

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.


Read the following passage and do the activities.

1. State whether the following sentences are True or false. (2)

  1. The king’s temperament also changed.
  2. The king was happy with prediction of the astrologer.
  3. The courtiers sought an audience with Tenali Raman.
  4. Courtiers advised the king to regulate his diet.

2. Complete the web (2)

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising.

He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.

3. Find out describing words from the passage for the words given below. (2)

  1. exercise - ________
  2. lifestyle - ________
  3. ride - _________
  4. physician - __________

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning.
    (Use 'used to)
  2. They advised the king to regulate his diet. (Pick out the infinitive)

5. What are the benefits of daily exercise? (2)


Read the passage and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary.

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising. He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.


Read the poem.

For Want of a Nail
For want of a nail, the shoe was lost,
For want of a shoe the horse was lost,
For want of a horse, the rider was lost,
For want of a rider, the battle was lost,
For want of a battle, the kingdom was lost,
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail!
[traditional rhyme]

Now form questions for the answers given in the speech bubbles.


Say Aloud

dash bash splash cash trash
steer tear clear deer dear
shower power tower flower mower
poked croaked soaked stroked joked
wept kept crept leapt slept

Circle the words where you get a zzzzz sound. One is done for you.

honeybees
price prize maze face
rice rise blaze fizz
lazy lacy busy racy
raise rays race ace
chase this these frosty

Now, read the following passage on “Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress-busting endorphins. Since our bodies cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
  2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter comes from the body and not the mind.
  3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practiced in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason'. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
  4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm-up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
  5. A handful of small-scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.

Answer the following.

a. How does laughter help one to cope with stress?

b. Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated'?

c. Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?

d. ‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.

e. Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?

  • sitting on the ground with legs crossed 
  • body movements
  • clapping
  • closed eyes 
  • breathing exercises 
  • chanting
  • stretching of arms and legs
  • bending backwards 
  • running/jogging
  • eye contact

f. ‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?


The passage given below is on Kabbadi. Read the passage and complete the activities that follow.

Kabbadi (கபடி - in Tamil) is a contact team sport that originated in Tamil Nadu, India. It is the national sport of Bangladesh. It is also popular in South Asia and is the state game of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana.

Kabbadi is played between two teams of seven players: the objective of the game is for a single player on offence referred to as a 'raider', to run in to the opposing teams half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court–all without being tackled by the defenders. Points are scored for each player tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but can be 'revived' for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle. The raider should hold his breath and utter the words like 'kabbadi kabbadi, hututu hututu, chadu kudu' etc. while the opponents try to catch him. If he stops uttering these words, he is considered out.

The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the subcontinent, such as Kabbadi or Chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, Kabbadi in Kerala and Telangana, Hadudu in Bangladesh, Bhavatik in Maldives, Kauddi or Kabbadi in the Punjab Region, Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India and Hu-Do-Do in Eastern India and Chadakudu in South India. The highest governing body of Kabbadi is the International Kabbadi Federation.

Given below is the visual presentation of the first paragraph.

i) Represent the other paragraphs in a visual form of your choice(flow chart, mind-map, pie-chart, etc.).

ii) Choose the correct option.

1. A contact sport usually involves a ______contact between players.

  1. violent
  2. gentle
  3. physical

2. Kabbadi is a game played between ______.

  1. seven teams of two players
  2. two teams of seven players
  3. four teams of seven players

3. A single ______.

  1. player on offence is referred to as a raider
  2. offence is referred to as a raider
  3. raider is an offence by the player

iii) Answer the following.

  1. How does a raider score points for his team?
  2. When does a raider concede a point to the opponent team?
  3. Can a player be revived when he/she is out of the game? Explain your answer.
  4. Kabbadi is called by different names in different parts of India. Do you know how Pallankuzhi is called in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala?

Now, read the following biographical extract on Sujatha Rangarajan, a Sciencefiction writer, and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Sujatha is the allonym of the Tamil author S. Rangarajan and it is this name that is recognised at once by the Tamil SciFi reading community. You might have seen the Tamil movie ‘Endiran’ where the robot Chitti exhibits extraordinary talents in an incredible manner. The robot could excel a human being in any act, beyond one’s imagination. Jeeno, a robotic dog which appeared in Sujatha’s science fiction novel “En Iniya Iyandhira” (My Dear Robot) formed the basis of Chitti’s character. Like Chitti, Jeeno was an allrounder who could cook, clean and fight. High-tech computer technology terms are used in the story. Jeeno, a pet robot, plays an important role throughout the story. As the story proceeds, it behaves and starts to think on its own like a human and instructs Nila, a human being, on how to proceed further in her crises.
  2. In the preface of ‘En Iniya Iyandhira’, the writer states the reason for his attraction to the genre: “Science gives us the wonderful freedom to analyse thousands and thousands of alternative possibilities. While using it, and while playing with its new games, a writer needs to be cautious only about one thing. The story should draw some parallels or association from the emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then it becomes interesting. Jeeno, the robot dog, was intelligent. But the character became popular only because of the robot’s frequently displayed human tendencies.” It is no wonder that all his works echo these words and will remain etched in the minds of the readers who enjoy reading his novels to have a wonderful lifetime experience.
  3. It was Sujatha, who set the trend for sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He has written 50 sci-fi short stories and these were published in various Tamil magazines. His stories have inspired many readers to extend their reading to English sci-fi writers like Isaac Asimov. The themes were bold, even if there was a dependence on a very well-established characterization of English fiction. Sujatha opened up a new world to us with his writings on holograms, computers and works like ‘En Iniya Iyanthira’ inspire many to study computer science.
  4. He has been one of the greatest writers for more than four decades. He combined reasoning and science in his writings. Being a multifaceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctively. He was the one who took Tamil novels to the next level. As an MIT alumnus and an engineer at BHEL, he was very good at technology. He could narrate sci-fi stories impressively. His readers always enjoyed reading all his detective and sci-fi novels which featured the most famous duo ‘Ganesh’ and ‘Vasanth’.
  5. Sujatha has played a crucial role as a playwright for various Tamil movies which have fascinated movie lovers. Hence, it is fathomable that the writer’s perspective of future India enthuses every reader and paves a new way to reading sci-fi stories in English.

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

  1. How was Jeeno different from other robots?
  2. What precaution should one take while writing Science fiction stories?
  3. What inspired Sujatha’s themes?
  4. Why were Sujatha’s sci-fi stories impressive?

B. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. difficult to believe (para 1)
  2. a style or category of art, music or literature (para 2)
  3. having many sides (para 4)
  4. capable of being understood (para 5)

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

The Stationmaster’s Supreme Sacrifice by Sanchari Pal (Adapted)

  1. Thirty-three years ago, on the night of December 2, 1984, Bhopal was hit by a catastrophe that had no parallel in the world’s industrial history. An accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal had released almost 30 tons of a highly toxic gas called methyl isocyanate, turning the city into a vast gas chamber. The result was a nightmare; more than 600,000 people were exposed to the deadly gas cloud that left thousands dead and many more breathless, blind and in agonizing pain. Few people know that during the Bhopal gas tragedy a heroic stationmaster risked his own life to save others.
  2. On the evening of December 3, 1984, Ghulam Dastagir was settling down in his office to complete some pending paperwork. This work kept him in his office till 1am in the night, when he emerged to check the arrival of the Gorakhpur Mumbai Express. As he stepped on to the platform, the deputy stationmaster felt his eyes burn and a queer itching sensation in his throat. He did not know that poisonous fumes leaking from Union Carbide’s pesticide factory were stealthily enveloping the railway station.
  3. Beginning to choke, Dastagir did not know then that twenty-three of his railway colleagues, including his boss, station superintendent Harish Dhurve, had already died. It was later reported that Dhurve had heard about the deadly gas and had immediately tried stopping the movement of trains passing through Bhopal before collapsing in his office chamber. His suddenly worsening health and years of experience told Dastagir that something was very wrong. Though he did not fully comprehend what was happening, he decided to act immediately when he did not get any response from the station master. He alerted the senior staff at nearby stations, like Vidisha and Itarsi, to suspend all train traffic to Bhopal.
  4. However, the jam-packed GorakhpurKanpur Express was already standing at the platform and its departure time was 20 minutes away. Listening to his gut instinct, Dastagir summoned his staff and told them to immediately clear the train for departure. When they asked if they should wait until the order to do so came from the head office, Dastagir replied that he would take complete responsibility for the train’s early departure. He wanted to ensure that the train left immediately, without any delay. His colleagues later recalled that Dastagir could barely stand and breathe as he spoke to them. Breaking all rules and without taking permission from anyone, he and his brave staff personally flagged off the train.
  5. But Dastagir’s work was not done. The railway station was filling up with people, desperate to flee the fumes. Some were gasping, others were vomiting, and most were weeping. Dastagir chose to remain on duty, running from one platform to another, attending, helping and consoling victims. He also sent an SOS to all the nearby railway offices, asking for immediate medical help. As a result, four ambulances with paramedics and railway doctors arrived at the station. It was winter and the gas was staying low to the ground, a thick haze poisoning everything in its path. Besieged by hordes of suffering people, the station soon resembled the emergency room of a large hospital. Dastagir stayed at the station, steadfastly doing his duty, knowing that his family was out there in the ill-fated city. That day all he had for his protection was a wet handkerchief on his mouth.
  6. Ghulam Dastagir’s devotion to duty saved the lives of hundreds of people. However, the catastrophe didn’t leave him unscathed. One of his sons died on the night of the tragedy and another developed a lifelong skin infection. Dastagir himself spent his last 19 years shuttling in and out of hospitals; he developed a painful growth in the throat due to prolonged exposure to toxic fumes. When he passed away in 2003, his death certificate mentioned that he was suffering from diseases caused as a direct result of exposure to MIC (Methyl Isocyanate) gas. A memorial has been built at platform No.1 to pay tribute to those who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty on the fateful night of December 3, 1984. However, Ghulam Dastagir, who died later, is not one of them. A forgotten hero whose sense of duty and commitment saved countless lives, Dastagir’s story deserves to be recognized and remembered by our fellow countrymen.
  1. Why was the accident at Union Carbide unparalleled in the world’s industrial history?
  2. How was Dastagir affected by the poisonous gas?
  3. What was the action taken by the station superintendent?
  4. How did Dastagir and his staff break rules?
  5. What was the cause of Dastagir’s death?
  6. Find words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.
  1. safeguard (para 1)
  2. common or familiar (para 2)
  3. prompt (para 4)
  4. cause (para 6)

Who according to Gandhi, can fight against evil and how?


What is Gandhiji’s ideal?


According to Tagore, when will India get the opportunity to win the gift of freedom?


How does Tagore acknowledge Gandhi’s noble work?


Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. a malevolent desire for revenge (para 1)
  2. tactful (para 2)
  3. despise (para 3)

Find words from the passage which are antonyms of the following. 

  1. artificially (para 1)
  2. strength (para 2)

Here is an amazing news item on how the qualities of duty and devotion is not restricted to humans alone but shared by animals. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

Caesar, the Hero of Mumbai on 26/11 

  1. Mumbai: Caesar, the last surviving hero of his kind, died of a heart attack on Thursday. Caesar, a Labrador Retriever, was covered with tri-color and given an emotional farewell from the city Police Force. The Mumbai Police Commissioner too marked the passing of the hero with a tweet.
  2. Caesar, who was 11 years old was the sole survivor among the dogs of Mumbai Police who took part in bomb detection operations during the terrorist attack on Mumbai that began on November 26, 2008. He died of a heart attack at a farm in Virar where he and his three canine buddies had been sent after retirement. During the terror attack in Mumbai, Caesar saved several lives when he sniffed out the hand grenades left by the terrorists at the busy CST railway station.
  3. Caesar was also a part of the search team at Nariman House, where terrorists were holed up for three days. Earlier he was also pressed into service for bomb search operation after the 2006 serial train blasts and July 2017 blast in Mumbai. The Mumbai police officials also tweeted their grief saying, “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable. We will remember our heroes forever.”

Answer the following questions.

  1. The Labrador Retriever was covered with tri-color. What does this signify?
  2. How did Caesar save several lives at the CST railway station?
  3. Which word in the third paragraph of the passage means the same as ‘forced’? 
  4. “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable”. Mention three services rendered by Caesar.
  5. Caesar is a Labrador breed of dogs. Name a few other native breeds that are used by the Police Force.
  6. Try to rewrite the news item in your mother tongue without losing the spirit and flavour of the text. Give a suitable title to the translated version.

Read the passage given below and make notes.

To match the best cities across the world, the Government of India initiated ‘smart cities’ to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people. The agenda under smart city promises to resolve urban sustainability problems. Urban forests provide a range of important ecosystem services that are critical for the sustainability of cities. Urban forestry, which is defined more as ‘Management of Trees’ contributes to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the society. Mangroves, lakes, grasslands, and forests in and around our cities, act as sponges that absorb the air and noise pollution and they present themselves as our cultural and recreational hotspots. However, these spots are rapidly being reclaimed and replaced in the name of development. Presence of urban green has shown to increase the economic value of the place.

Urban forests contribute to reduce the cost of building storm water drain systems for municipalities and neutralizing urban heat island effect. Plants not only provide shade but also help in regulating the micro-climate. They help regulate energy budgets, improve air quality, and curtail noise pollution. Trees, herbs, shrubs, and grasses arrest sedimentation and prevent other pollutants from entering our water systems. This will give a chance for our urban lakes and rivers to recover and help improve aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity also gets a boost through the urban forestsand helps create corridors connecting the forest areas. High biodiversity areas can also help to build resilient ecosystems. Availability of forests within our urban areas gives an opportunity for children to connect to the natural environment and learn about native species.


Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.


Now read the following article on the emerging career options in the modern era and answer the questions that follow.

The students at the higher secondary level in schools start thinking of suitable courses to take up at the university level based on their aptitude, ability, and interests. While considering the higher education options, they should also plan the career path they wish to take. In today’s complex job scenario, there is a mismatch between demand and supply. On one hand, we have qualified professionals desperately trying to find a job, while on the other hand, there are many professions that need suitable talented employees. But such skilled employees are unavailable. Therefore, the need of the hour is that students have an understanding of the emerging career options. and globalisation has widened the scope of career options in the twenty–first century. Let us consider some popular careers.

Fashion Designing

The current cosmopolitan and fashion–conscious wave that has taken over our country has opened up a huge arena for careers in fashion. These careers encompass designing clothes, costumes, jewellery, footwear, wardrobe, cosmetics, accessories and the like.

Culinary Arts

With food and cookery shows being a major trend across the world, culinary arts, a sub-domain of the hospitality sector, has now become the most sought-after career.

Paramedical sciences

In recent times, there has been a great demand in the health care industry. Paramedical professionals who support medical practitioners in areas such as optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are much sought after.

Media, Journalism and Advertising

In this information era, print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. This arena has become a huge career playground because youngsters are attracted to it as the exposure and reach are greater through such mass media. We notice that radio and TV channels, internet companies, and advertising agencies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

Hotel Management

The hotel industry is the fastest-growing industry in India. The number of international travellers (both for business and leisure) is increasing. The hospitality and service industry offers career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management, etc.

Sports Management

With multinational companies supporting sports, careers in sports offer enormous scope. One need not be a player or an athlete to shine in a sports career because the field of sports offers various career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists, dieticians, referees, etc. Conducting sports events successfully, organizing the event laudably, preparing the ground for the event are all part of sports management.

  1. When do students start thinking about their career path?
  2. How can students build a strong career?
  3. What are the integral aspects of a successful career?
  4. What is meant by ‘culinary art’?
  5. Why is media a popular career option?
  6. Name some paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.
  7. Why is the hotel industry seen as the fastest growing in India?
  8. Does one have to be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.
  9. Pick one word from the passage which is the opposite of ‘modern’.
  10. Which word in the passage means ‘composed of people from many parts of the country’?

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

Humans have long been fascinated by fiction. We experience excitement in assigning supernatural power to imaginary characters in fictional stories – and so we have Spider man, Batman, He–man, Titans and many more. The ‘Cyborg’ was an offshoot of such wild imagination of humans to invest our species with superhuman powers. Today, the Cyborg is no more an imaginary organism. We are living in a world where a sizeable population of humans have merged their bodies with technological implants. The term ‘Cyborg’, short for ‘cybernetic organism’, was coined to describe a man, whose body is implanted with technological devices to supplement and substitute body functions.

Cyborgs include people with cardiac pacemakers, contact lenses, bionic ears and eyes, prosthetics and so on. In other words, a cyborg is partly human and partly machine. The technological innovations in the field of medicine and healthcare augment humans with machines, producing a beta version of the human body. The advent of brain machine interfaces is certain to blur the boundary between humans and machines. Scientists are working hard to find a technique for age reversal too. People do not want to die, so mankind is striving to get to the final frontier, which is development of machines and devices that would accord man immortality.

The needs of humans are not limited. As time passes, food habits change, thinking patterns change, and even appearances change. We are about to travel by driverless, fully automated vehicles. Computers and smart phones have become our masters. The more we depend and merge with technological advancements, the more the humanness in us slowly erodes. Intelligence is sought to be infused into machines and robotics are designed in such a way to give man a virtual human companion. The field of artificial intelligence is overtaking the human brain and many fear that it could even harm the human race. Despite certain limitations and potential threats, many believe that cyborgs will be the next step in the evolution of mankind. The amalgamation of man and machine is sure to add a new dimension to the life of mankind and this will prove to be the ‘biggest evolution in Biology’ since the emergence of life, four billion years ago.

Questions:

a) Account for the popularity of characters with supernatural powers.

b) Who is referred to as a ‘Cyborg’?

c) What is expected to happen with the advent of the brain machine interface?

d) The needs of humans are not limited. How is this statement elaborated in the passage?

e) How can a machine turn into a virtual companion for humans?

f) Explain the flipside of the rapid technological advancement.

g) Identify the word in para 1 which means ‘everlasting life’.

h) Which of the following words is synonymous with ‘amalgamation’?

  1. recreation
  2. integration
  3. exploration
  4. proposition

i) Which of the following options is the antonym of the word ‘advent’?

  1. drawback
  2. dispute
  3. departure
  4. danger

j) Find out the word which is the antonym of ‘natural’ in para 3.


On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.

The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “Shyar Khamba”. The inhabitants of Shyar Khamba, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today

Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary’’. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.

The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.

Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922, 1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse. Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain. In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest.


Read the following information given in the table below and answer the questions.

A nice choice from Chennai to the National capital
RAJADHANI EXPRESS TIMETABLE
Shortest Route between Chennai and Hazrat Nizamuddin 8 Halts & 324 intermediate stations in between
Station Name Departs Day Speed
Chennai Central 06.05 1 75
Vijayawada 11.55 1 76
Warangal 14.40 1 77
Balharshah 18.00 1 78
Nagpur 20.45 1 74
Bhopal 02.10 2 89
Jhansi 05.31 2 99
Gwalior 06.32 2 85
Agra Cantt 07.57 2 76
Hazrat Nizamudin 10.25 2 -

a) The number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is______.

  1. five
  2. ten
  3. eight
  4. eleven

b) The train is expected to reach ______ around 8.45 PM

  1. Warangal
  2. Vijayawada
  3. Bhopal
  4. Nagpur

c) Between ______ the train runs at its maximum speed.

  1. Bhopal and Gwalior 
  2. Bhopal and Jhansi
  3. Bhopal and Hazarat Nizamudin
  4. Bhopal and Agra

d) Almost ______ the train reaches Vijayawada.

  1. the day after
  2. around early morning
  3. late night
  4. around noon

e) People prefer the Rajadhani Express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital because ______.

  1. it reaches the destination on the same day
  2. the charge is reasonable.
  3. the train halts at ten stations.
  4. it is the shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi.

f) The destination of Rajadhani express is______.

  1. Hazarat Nizamudin.
  2. New Delhi junction.
  3. Old Delhi.
  4. Rajkot.

How should teenagers guard against cyber crimes?


What should we do to ensure Safe Surfing?


What are the details not to be revealed in public domain?


What should parents do to ensure the safety of children in cyber space?


Which of the following should one avoid while using social media? Tick against the correct options.


How can we identify insecure websites?


Mention any three details that should not be revealed in public domain.


What should parents do to ensure cyber safety for their wards? (Any three points)


Why is it not advisable to play online games?


Pick out word which mean the same as

stop doing something (para 1) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

not protected (para 2)


Pick out word which mean the same as

keep a check on (para 3)


Read the given sentence and underline the 'no' word.

Nobody is at home.


Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

"I don't believe in taking the right decisions. I take decisions, I take decisions and then make them right:' One of them make them right. One of Ratan Tata's inspiring words which made me dream beyond shadows. I feel fortunate that I discovered him in the early stage of my life and now I am using his teachings to mould my future the way I want.

Even though Ratan Tata was born into a very posh family in India, he never took money and power for granted. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York, Ratan Tata began his career in the Tata Group working on the shop floor of Tata Steel. After working for almost 10 years he was appointed as the director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited (NELCO) in order to help its struggling finances. He worked hard to build a better consumer electronics division but the economic recession and union strikes prevented him from achieving success and this success helped Tata to be appointed as the chairman of the Tata Group of companies. He started with a very basic job in his father's company and today he owns a billion dollar company.

The tag of greatness does not come without making any sacrifices and this tag on Ratan Tata suits to its best.

Tata group launched its passenger car Tata Indica in the year 1998 but Tata Indica was a failure in its first year and the experiment seemed to be failing. Many people started advising Ratan Tata that he should sell the passenger car business. Ratan Tata also agreed to this and a proposal was given to Ford. they showed interest too. The three-hour meeting at Ford headquarters in Detroit, chairman of Ford (Bill Ford) said to Ratan Tata, "Why did you enter in the passenger car business when you were not knowing of it. It will be a favour if we buy this business from you."

Ratan Tata decided to move back home. Whi le travelling he was very tense as the feeling of being insulted was on his mind. After earlier failures, Tata Motors did well with its business of passenger cars but in the same period, Ford did very bad. In 2008 when Ford was on it way of bankruptcy, Tata Group offered Ford to buy its luxury car brand, Jaguar Land Rover. Ford arrived in Mumbai for the meeting. In the meeting, Bill Ford said to Ratan Tata, you are doing a big favour for us by buying-Jaguar-Land Rover is now owned by Tata Group and is currently making profits.

A1. Rewrite the following sentences as per their occurrence in the extract:   (2)

  1. He was appointed as the Director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited.
  2. Tata Group launched its passenger car 'Tata Indica in the year 1998.
  3. Billi Ford said to Ratan Tata, "You are doing a big favour for us by buying Jaguar-Land Rover."
  4. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York.

A2. Explain:   (2)

The writer says, "I don't believe in taking right decisions. I take decisions and then make them right."

A3. Give reasons:  (2)

Ratan Tata decided to sell his passenger car business.

A4. Personal Response:  (2)

Right decision at the right time is important success. Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:   (2)

Do as directed:

  1. He worked hard building a better consumer electronics division.
    (Rewrite the sentence using the infinitive form of the underlined word)
  2. Tata Group launched the passenger car Tata Indica.
    (Rewrite it beginning with 'The passenger car Tata Indica......')

A6. Vocabulary:

Give antonyms.

  1. Profit × ______
  2. Prevent × ______

Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Fill in the blanks:  (2)

  1. ______ percent of our daily communication is non-verbal.
  2. Eye contact is another type of ______ communication.
  3. Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling ______.
  4. One can readily detect _______.

According to some experts, a staggering 93 percent of our daily communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions are easy to decipher. One can readily detect happiness, sadness, anger. Physicians can tell a patient is doing well (or not) by looking at his/her face.

Eye contact is another type of non-verbal communication, which can tell a lot about the other person. The eyes convey a range of emotions-happiness, sadness, boredom, surprise, confidence .......... even emotional interest. Staring at someone's forehead may intimidate the recipient, staring at the mouth is sometimes interpretated as a sign of emotional interest. In fact, staring into someone's eyes is a sign of lying, and so is looking away. In certain cultures, lack of eye contact is taken as a sign of respect.

If body language is to be defined, it is a combination of facial expression, gestures, eye contact, body movements and posture and voice.

Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling distressed or uncomfortable. If the pupils are dilated, it ofter indicates interest, even emotional interest. The lips also reflect our body language, and lip biting indicates worry and/or anxiety; tightening of the lips may be an indication of disapproval. Slightly turned-up lips indicate happiness and slightly turned-down lips indicate sadness.

A2.

A3. Find the antonyms of:    (2)

  1. verbal × ______
  2. entertaining × ______
  3. sender × ______
  4. comfortable × ______

A4. Do as Directed:   (2)

  1. The eyes convey a range of emotions.   (Frame a 'Wh' question in order to get the underlined part as answer).
  2. Physicians can tell about a patient's wellness.  (Rewrite using 'able to')

A5. Personal Response:   (2)

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in our daily life. Comment.


Match the following items from column-A with those column-B:

Column 'A' Column 'Non-Textual'
(a) Geoffrey Chaucer (i) Trinidad
(b) Daniel Defoe (ii) Wuthering Heights
(c) V.S. Naipaul (iii) Robinson Crusoe
(d) Emile Bronte (iv) The Canterbury Tales

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

The call of the seas has always found an echo in me. Not being rich enough to roam in a private yacht, I have taken the poor man's way out. I swim across them. I have always been fascinated by the Indian ocean, whether at Mumbai, at Puri or at Gopalpur. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill. But the idea of swimming the Palk Strait did not occur to me until after I swam in the English channel. Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered. teaming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me. By the way, for preparation, I continued a strict and rigorous course of training which began in 1960. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea. Neither of these was easy.

Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait, especially about the tides and currents. Everything about the English channel is known-there is the Channel Swimming Association, there are trained pilots there are wants to be hired, accurate weather forecasts, dependable tide tables and every other form of assistance was readily available. All that one needed was money. Here in the Palk Strait one has to find out firstly from where information could be obtained and then decide how much of it could be incorrect or misleading!

A1. Rewrite the following as per their sequence in the extract:    (2)

  1. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea.
  2. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill.
  3. All that one needed was money.
  4. Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait.

A2. Explain:    (2)

What does the writer man by saving, "Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered, teeming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me"?

A3. Give reason:   (2)

The narrator had an intense desire to swim in the Palk Strait. Explain the reasons for it.

A4. Personal Response:    (2)

Do you like to have an adventurous life? Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:

Do as directed:   (2)

  1. Very little was known about the Palk Strait. (Rewrite as a negative sentence)
  2. I had to collect a comprehensive range of facts. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with 'A comprehensive ........)

A6. Vocabulary:   (2)

Give the synonyms of the following words:

  1. rigorous - ______
  2. thrill - ______

Read the passage given below:

1. Very often, we do not take the first step towards a good cause because we say to ourselves, "The task is so big. What can I do alone?" So nothing gets done. There is much talk about environmental protection, air pollution and saving our forests. Do we really care? If we do, here are a few things we can do to make our surroundings more pleasant.
2. It is good to adopt a two-uses-attitude! By putting an article to a second use, we are giving it a longer lease of life and using up less raw material from nature. One of the worst things we do is abuse of paper. The clean sides of envelopes can be used to write small notes, lists and reminders around the house. The more paper we use, the more trees will have to be cut down. For the same reason, we should avoid the use of paper napkins or paper plates. Cloth napkins are just as good, for they can be washed and used over and over again.
3. Another area which needs the most urgent attention is effective garbage disposal. People who are conscious about it follow rules and laws strictly. As a result, their neighbourhoods are clean and beautiful Similarly, each one of us can contribute to a cleaner environment. All kitchen waste should be collected separately. Those of you who have green fingers can turn this into valuable manure. Dig a pit and put the kitchen waste into it. When the pit is a little over half full, cover it up with mud. Let nature do the rest. Within three or six months, we will have a good garden manure. It can also be done as a community project by digging a large pit in the colony. Do take help of all the members, for nothing succeeds like co-operation
4. A lot of people don't care about the environment because they don't understand the adverse effect that society has on it. It is important to convince people to care about the environment. The first step would be to convince people to change by providing simple alternative solutions and ways of doing things. Theintemet is a powerful tool and a group on social media of like-minded people can be formed. People can share environmental stories and issues, as well as pool in solutions and alternatives to educate one another. With the current state that our planet is in, it is imperative that people actively care about the environment and most importantly to act now.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any Eight questions from the nine given below:

  1. Why don't we take the first step towards a good cause?
  2. What is a two-uses-attitude?
  3. What can we do to avoid the abuse of paper? (any two points)
  4. What is the result of an effective way of a garbage disposal?
  5. What procedure can one adopt for kitchen waste?
  6. How can making of garden manure be done as community project?
  7. How long does it take to make good garden manure?
  8. Select a suitable word from the passage which means - being concerned or interested. (Paragraph 3)
  9. Pick out the word from the passage which means - completely necessary? (Paragraph 4)

Read the passage below:

1. Our history makes it evident that the Indian Plastics Industry made a vigorous beginning in 1957 but it took more than 30 years for it to pervade Indian lifestyles. In 1979, "the market for plastics' was just being seeded by the state-owned Indian Petro-Chemicals and it was only in 1994 that plastic soft drink bottles became a visible source of annoyance.
2. In the same year, people in other cities were concerned about the state of public sanitation and also urged regulatory bodies to ban the production, distribution and use of plastic bags. However, the challenge was greater than it appeared at first.
3.

The massive generation of plastic waste in India is due to rapid urbanisation, spread of retail chains, plastic packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products, to consumer items and cosmetics. The projected high growth rates of GDP and continuing rapid urbanisation suggest that India's trajectory of plastic consumption and plastic waste is likely to increase.

4. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report of 2018, India stands among few other countries like France, Mongolia and several African countries that have initiated total or partial nationallevel bans on plastics in their jurisdictions. On World Environment Day in 2018, India vowed to phase out single-use plastics by 2022, which gave a much needed impetus to bring this change
5. In this context, thereafter ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) are currently sending their collected waste to cement plants for co-processing, twelve other states/UTs are using plastic waste for polymer bitumen road construction and still four other states are using the plastic waste for waste-to-energy plants and oil production. A world of greater possibilities has now opened up to initiate appropriate and concrete actions to build up the necessary institutions and systems before oceans turn, irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic.
6. However there is no one single masterstroke to counter the challenges witnessed by the staggering plastic waste management in the country. The time is now to formulate robust and inclusive National Action Plans and while doing so, the country will establish greater transparency to combat the plastic jeopardy in a more sustainable and holistic way.

Based on your understanding of the passage answer any six out of the seven questions given below:

  1. What does the writer mean by 'visible source of annoyance'?
  2. Why did people demand a ban on plastics?
  3. What created a demand for plastics in India?
  4. With reference to the graph write one conclusion that can be drawn about the production of plastics in 2019 (approximately).
  5. What does the upward trend of the graph indicate?
  6. What does the line, oceans turning 'irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic', suggest?
  7. What step must be taken to combat the challenges of plastic waste management? What will be its impact?

Complete the dialogue.

Anil:  Which is your favourite book?
Sunil: ________________________
Anil: What type of book is it?
Sunil: ________________________

The branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources. 

  1. Microeconomics 
  2. Macro economics
  3. Economics
  4. None of these

Read the following sentence.

‘A very wise man once remarked that of the unspoken word, you are a master; of the spoken word, you are a slave.’ The sentence has two pairs of opposites - spoken and unspoken, and master and slave. The contrasting ideas make the sentence more effective. Putting together opposite or contrasting ideas in one sentence is a literary device. It is called antithesis.

Read the following examples of antithesis.

  • Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
  • Man proposes and God disposes.
  • Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
  • Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit.

Activity: Live English: Packs, packets, pouches, wrappers

Given above is the picture of an imaginary food item’s packet. Let us see how to ‘read’ the matter on the packet as a vigilant consumer.

  1. Look at the wrapper and complete the sentences.
    1. The name of the food item is ______.
    2. It is made by ______.
    3. It is a ______ food item. (Veg/Non-veg)
    4. The ______ sign indicates whether it is a Veg or Non-veg food item.
    5. The ingredients are ______, ______, ______, ______.
    6. The date of packing is ______ and the expiry date is ______.
    7. It should be consumed before ______ from the date of manufacturing.
  2. Try and obtain more information about the various symbols printed on the packet.
  3. Discuss the following -
    1. Why the ‘recipe’ is given on the packet.
    2. Why the packet tells us to visit the website of the company.
    3. What ideas are used to make the packet attractive.
    4. How you will verify whether something is good for you to eat.

Collect the outer coverings of fast food items. Discuss the following points in groups and then write your observations in your notebook.

  • Ingredients
  • Manufactured by
  • Net weight
  • Veg or Non-veg
  • Recipe
  • Nutrition facts
  • MRP
  • Mfg date
  • Website
  • Other instructions, if any

William Shakespeare was one of the greatest playwrights of all time. He lived in the 16th century. Many Shakespearean plays have been written in the short-story form. Find out the names of at least 5 of Shakespearean plays.

Example: Romeo and Juliet


Enact any one anecdote in the classroom.


Form groups of four to six.
Discuss whether and how you can improve English spelling.


Arrange a ‘Jokes’ session in the classroom where each student tells a joke. The jokes must be told in English.


Make groups of 10-15. In this game, each person writes three sentences about himself/herself, two of which are true and the third one is a lie. Read aloud your sentences, while others guess which two are true and which is a lie.

Examples: Hello, everyone! I am Sonali. I have a brother and a sister. I live in Amalner. We have a pet dog at home.

In the game ‘Two Truths, One Lie!’, it is necessary to use details which can be verified to see whether they are true or false. For example, you cannot use sentences like ‘I once had a blue sweater.’


Look up the following entries in the Language Study pages given at the end.

  • stress
  • intonation
  • sound
  • consonant
  • vowel

Share
Notifications



      Forgot password?
Use app×