What Was Narmada Bachao Andolan? What Were Its Main Issues? What Democratic Strategy Did It Use to Put Forward Its Demands? - Political Science


What was Narmada Bachao Andolan? What were its main issues? What democratic strategy did it use to put forward its demands?



Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of Adivasis, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against several large dams being built across River Narmada, which flows through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Sardar Sarovar Project in Gujarat and the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh were two of the most important and largest, multipurpose dams planned under the project Narmada Bachao Andolan, a movement to save River Narmada, opposed the construction of dams and questioned the nature of ongoing development projects in the country.

An ambitious development project was launched in the Narmada Valley in the early eighties. The project consisted of 30 big dams, 135 medium sized and about 3,000 small dams to be constructed on the Narmada and its tributaries which flow across three states on Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Reasons NBA opposed the project:-

i. Since its inception, the NBA linked its opposition to the Sardar Sarovar Project with larger issues concerning the nature of ongoing development projects and the efficacy of the model development which the country followed.

ii. Narmada Bachao Andolan continued a sustained agitation for more than twenty years.

Concept: Environment and Development - Affected People'S Movements
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2011-2012 (March) All India Set 1


In the given political map of India, four places are marked as A, B, C and D. Identify them with the help of information given below and write their correct names in the answer-book along with their serial numbers and the alphabets concerned:

i. The State related to Chipko Movement.

ii. The State where a special opinion poll was held asking people to decide if they wanted to merge with Maharashtra or remain separate.

iii. The State out of which the States of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were created.

iv. The State related to Narmada Sagar project.

Study the passage the given below and answer the following questions that follow:

Sardar Sarovar project is a multipurpose mega-scale dam. It required relocation of around two and a half lakh people from the villages. Issues of relocation and proper rehabilitations of the project-affected people were first raised by the local activist group. It was around 1988-89 that the issues crystallized under the banner of the NBAa loose collector of local voluntary organization.


i. Why is the Sardar Sarovar Project mentioned as multipurpose mega-scale dam?

ii. Why was it opposed by the villagers?

iii. Name the organizations which led the movement against this project

iv. What was the main demand of the local activist group?

Why and how did the Mizo Movement for succession gain popular support?

Identify the most important outcome of the Rio Summit.

Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions:

The Naxalite Movement has used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless. Its supporters advocated the use of violent means to achieve their political goals. In spite of the use of preventive detention and other strong measures adopted by the West Bengal government..., the Naxalite Movement did not come to an end. In later years, it spread to many other parts of the country.

  1. Why did Naxalite prefer to use violence?
  2. Assess the positive role of the Naxalite Movement in spite of using violence?
  3. Suggest any two measures to contain this movement.

Which three major developments took place in Indian politics during the last decade of the 20th century? Describe.

What was Chipko movement?

Differentiate between Modernization and Westernization as developmental goals


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