What is vaccination? Mention the four ways in which vaccine’s are prepared, giving the name of one disease for which each type of vaccine is used.
For developing resistance in the body we introduce germs or germ substances in the body to develop resistance in the body against a particular disease. The material introduced into the body is called vaccine, this practice is called prophylaxis.
The germ or the germ substance is put into the body orally as polio drops or it is introduced by injection as TAB vaccine. Vaccine or vaccination was attached with small pox, but it is now used in a general sense.
- Killed germs are introduced into the body These act as vaccine for TAB, vaccine for typhoid, Salk’s vaccine for poliomyelitis. Rabies vaccine for dog bite.
- Living weakened germs: The living germs are treated in such a way that they become very weak and as such, they cannot cause the disease. They can induce antibody formation such as the vaccine for measles and the freezed dried BCG vaccine for tuberculosis.
- Living fully virulent germs: These virulent germs in small doses are introduced into the body as vaccine and these produce antibodies in the body and these do not allow the germs of particular type to cause that disease: In this vaccination the person is inoculated with cowpox virus. It is very similar to small pox virus.
- Toxoids: Toxoids are prepared from the extracts., of toxins secreted by bacteria. These toxins are poisons and these are made harmless by adding formalin into them. They retain their capacity and as a result when introduced into the body they produce antibodies into the body and do not allow the germs to grow in the body as vaccines for diphtheria and tetanus.