What quantity must be added to each term of the ratio x: y so that it may become equal to c: d?
Let the required quantity which is to be added be p.
Then, we have:
`(x + p)/(y + p) = c/d`
`dx + pd = cy + cp`
pd - cp = cy - dx
p(d - c) = cy - dx
`p = (cy - dx)/(d - c)`
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