Advertisement Remove all ads

What is photovoltaic effect? Explain the principle and working of solar cell. - Applied Physics 1

Advertisement Remove all ads
Advertisement Remove all ads
Advertisement Remove all ads
Short Note

What is photovoltaic effect? Explain the principle and working of solar cell.

Advertisement Remove all ads


In photoelectric effect when radiation is incident on a metal surface electron are ejected. In photovoltaic effect, certain materials being exposed to radiation generates electron hole pairs available for conduction. As a result a voltage is developed across the material. The radiation
energy E= hϑ is required to be greater then the band gap energy Eg of the material. This is a phenomenon in which light energy is converted into electrical energy.

⦁ Solar cell is a semiconductor device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. This is a p-n junction diode with very doping level. Solar cells have a flat shape with a very thin top layer. So that the incident solar energy can reach the junction area.

⦁ As the solar radiation is incident on the device due to the radiation energy E = hϑ ≥ Eg electron hole pairs are generated in p and n region.

⦁ In the energy band structure of the solar cell in fig it is seen that the conduction band is lower in the region than that in the p region. Hence , the generated electrons of the conduction band of p region travel to the conduction band of n region which is at a lower electron energy level. Similarly the holes created in the valence band of the n region move to the valence band of the p region at a lower hole energy level.

⦁ This diffusion of electrons and holes through the junction constitutes the current .
⦁ The top surface of the solar cell is coated with an antireflection film to maximize the utilization of the incident solar energy by the junction .
⦁ A solar cell does not need a power supply. It generates power.
⦁ Materials used for solar cell are different types pf semiconductor, single crystal , polycrystal, thin silicon wafers etc

Concept: Applications of semiconductors : Rectifier diode, LED, Zener diode, Photo diode, Photovoltaic cell, BJT, FET, SCR., MOSFET
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
Advertisement Remove all ads

View all notifications

      Forgot password?
View in app×