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What is ferromagnetism? - Chemistry

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What is ferromagnetism?

Explain the following with suitable examples:

Ferromagnetism

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Solution 1

The substances which can be permanently magnetised even in the absence of a magnetic field are called ferromagnetic substances, and the mechanism is called ferromagnetism.

Solution 2

Ferromagnetism: The substances that are strongly attracted by a magnetic field are called ferromagnetic substances. Ferromagnetic substances can be permanently magnetised even in the absence of a magnetic field. Some examples of ferromagnetic substances are iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinium, and CrO­2.

In solid state, the metal ions of ferromagnetic substances are grouped together into small regions called domains and each domain acts as a tiny magnet. In an un-magnetised piece of a ferromagnetic substance, the domains are randomly-oriented and so, their magnetic moments get cancelled. However, when the substance is placed in a magnetic field, all the domains get oriented in the direction of the magnetic field. As a result, a strong magnetic effect is produced. This ordering of domains persists even after the removal of the magnetic field. Thus, the ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet.

Schematic alignment of magnetic moments in ferromagnetic substances

Concept: Magnetic Properties
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APPEARS IN

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry
Chapter 1 The Solid State
Q 26.1 | Page 32

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