What do you mean by Common Size Statements?
These statements depict the relationship between various items of financial statements and some common items (like Net Sales and the Total of Balance Sheet) in percentage terms. In other words, various items of Trading and Profit and Loss Account such as Cost of Goods Sold, Non-Operating Incomes and Expenses are expressed in terms of percentage of Net Sales. On the other hand, different items of Balance Sheet such as Fixed Assets, Current Assets, Share Capital etc. are expressed in terms of percentage of Total of Balance Sheet. These percentage figures are easily comparable with that of the previous years’ (i.e. inter-firm comparison) and with that of the figures of other firms in the same industry (i.e. inter-firm comparison) as well.
The analyses based on these statements are commonly known as Vertical Analysis.
The following are commonly prepared Common Size Statements.
1. Common Size Balance Sheet
2. Common Size Income Statements