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What causes the temporary and permanent hardness of water? - Chemistry

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ConceptWater Hard and Soft Water

Question

What causes the temporary and permanent hardness of water?

Solution 1

Temporary hardness of water is due to the presence of soluble salts of magnesium and calcium in the form of hydrogen carbonates (MHCO3, where M = Mg, Ca) in water.

Permanent hardness of water is because of the presence of soluble salts of calcium and magnesium in the form of chlorides in water.

Solution 2

Temporary hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium in water i.e., Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3) in water. Permanent hardness of water is due to the presence of soluble chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium i.e., CaCl2, CaS04, MgCl2 and MgS04.

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Solution What causes the temporary and permanent hardness of water? Concept: Water - Hard and Soft Water.
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