What are various techniques of disaster management.
Natural calamities of different types & intensities (Earthquakes, Hailstorms, Cyclones, Hurricanes, Flood, Avalanches, Landslides, Tsunami, etc.) affect Nations all over the World. Not all natural calamities can be predicted and prevented, but a state of preparedness and ability to respond quickly to the natural calamity can considerably mitigate loss of life & property and restore normalcy at the earliest is referred as Disaster Management.
There are no standardized rules defining the different phases of the disaster management cycle. Different agencies use different cycles depending upon their objectives. However, while approaches vary, it is agreed that disaster management activities should be carried out in a cycle.
1. Mitigation: any activity that reduces either the chance of a hazard taking place or a hazard turning into disaster.
2. Risk reduction: anticipatory measures and actions that seek to avoid future risks as a result of a disaster.
3. Prevention: avoiding a disaster even at the eleventh hour.
4. Preparedness: plans or preparations made to save lives or property, and help the response and rescue service operations. This phase covers implementation/operation, early warning systems and capacity building so the population will react appropriately when an early warning is issued.
5. Response: includes actions taken to save lives and prevent property damage, and to preserve the environment during emergencies or disasters. The response phase is the implementation of action plans.
6. Recovery: includes actions that assist a community to return to a sense of normalcy after a disaster.