What are Kharif crops ? Give the name of the most important cereal plant of such crops. Briefly describe any three methods for cultivation of Kharif crops.
Kharif crops generally grow in rainy season. Rice is the most important cereal Kharif crop growing in India. It occupies the largest area in India. It needs rainfall from 150 to 200 cms. It requires flooded fields during its growth. It requires alluvial loamy soil.
Cultivation methods of Kharif crops:
- Broadcasting: After preparing the fields for growing the rice crop the seeds are thrown in the fields. This method is adopted in the areas where there is less of rain. The fields are not flooded with water. This method is being adopted in China and Japan.
- Dibbling: In this method seeds are dropped at regular interval in the furrows made by the plough.
- Transplantation: Here the seeds are soaked for 24 hours. The seeds get sprouted. Then these seeds are transferred to nurseries. Here the seeds grow and attain a height of 6” to 9” and then these seedlings are transferred to specially prepared flooded fields which have been properly ploughed. Then those seedlings start growing in the fields. Then the fields are watered and manured from time to time. Then the crop matures and ultimately for ripening they require a temperature ranging from 16°C to 20°C. When the crop become fully ripe and plants become golden yellowish, then the crop is harvested manually or with the help of combines.