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What are the characteristics of the transition elements and why are they called transition elements? - Chemistry

What are the characteristics of the transition elements and why are they called transition elements? 

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Solution 1

Transition elements are those elements in which the atoms or ions (in stable oxidation state) contain partially filled d-orbital. These elements lie in the d-block and show a transition of properties between s-block and p-block. Therefore, these are called transition elements.

Solution 2

General characteristics of transition elements :-

(i)Electronic configuration – (n -1) d1-10 ns1-2

(ii)Metallic character – With the exceptions of Zn, Cd and Hg, they have typical metallic structures

(iii)Atomic and ionic size-ions of same charge in a given series show progressive decrease in radius with increasing atomic number.

(iv)Oxidation state-Variable; ranging from+2 to +7.

(v)Paramagnetism – The ions with unpaired electrons are paramagnetic.

(vi)Ionisation enthalpy – Increases with increase in charge. Formation of coloured ions – Due to presence of unpaired electrons.

(viii) Formation of complex compounds – Due to small size and high charge density of metal ions.

(ix)They possess catalj^c properties – Due to their ability to adopt multiple oxidation states. .

(x)Formation of interstitial compounds.

(xi)Alloy formation.

They are called transition elements due to their incompletely filled d-orbitals in ground state or in any stable oxidation state and they are placed between s and p- block elements

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APPEARS IN

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Textbook
Chapter 8 The d-block and f-block Elements
Q 8.1 | Page 234
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