What are the characteristics of the transition elements and why are they called transition elements?
Transition elements are those elements in which the atoms or ions (in stable oxidation state) contain partially filled d-orbital. These elements lie in the d-block and show a transition of properties between s-block and p-block. Therefore, these are called transition elements.
General characteristics of transition elements :-
(i)Electronic configuration – (n -1) d1-10 ns1-2
(ii)Metallic character – With the exceptions of Zn, Cd and Hg, they have typical metallic structures
(iii)Atomic and ionic size-ions of same charge in a given series show progressive decrease in radius with increasing atomic number.
(iv)Oxidation state-Variable; ranging from+2 to +7.
(v)Paramagnetism – The ions with unpaired electrons are paramagnetic.
(vi)Ionisation enthalpy – Increases with increase in charge. Formation of coloured ions – Due to presence of unpaired electrons.
(viii) Formation of complex compounds – Due to small size and high charge density of metal ions.
(ix)They possess catalj^c properties – Due to their ability to adopt multiple oxidation states. .
(x)Formation of interstitial compounds.
They are called transition elements due to their incompletely filled d-orbitals in ground state or in any stable oxidation state and they are placed between s and p- block elements
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- General Properties of the Transition Elements (D-block)