Two vessels have the same base area but different shapes. The first vessel takes twice the volume of water that the second vessel requires to fill up to a particular common height. Is the force exerted by the water on the base of the vessel the same in the two cases? If so, why do the vessels filled with water to that same height give different readings on a weighing scale?

#### Solution 1

Yes

Two vessels having the same base area have identical force and equal pressure acting on their common base area. Since the shapes of the two vessels are different, the force exerted on the sides of the vessels has non-zero vertical components. When these vertical components are added, the total force on one vessel comes out to be greater than that on the other vessel. Hence, when these vessels are filled with water to the same height, they give different readings on a weighing scale.

#### Solution 2

Pressure (and therefore force) on the two equal base areas are identical. But force is exerted by water on the sides of the vessels also, which has a non-zero vertical component when sides of the vessel are not perfectly normal to the base. This net vertical component of force by water on the sides of the vessel is greater for the first vessel than the second. Hence, the vessels weigh different even when the force on the base is the same in the two cases.