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Think of Ways by Which You Can Estimate the Following (Where an Estimate is Difficult to Obtain, Try to Get an Upper Bound on the Quantity): the Total Mass of Rain-bearing Clouds Over India During the Monsoon - Physics

Just as precise measurements are necessary in science, it is equally important to be able to make rough estimates of quantities using rudimentary ideas and common observations. Think of ways by which you can estimate the following (where an estimate is difficult to obtain, try to get an upper bound on the quantity):

the total mass of rain-bearing clouds over India during the Monsoon


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Solution 1

During monsoons, a metrologist records about 215 cm of rainfall in India i.e., the height of water column, h = 215 cm = 2.15 m

Area of country, A = 3.3 × 1012 m2

Hence, volume of rain water, A × h = 7.09 × 1012 m3

Density of water, ρ = 1 × 103 kg m–3

Hence, mass of rain water = ρ × V = 7.09 × 1015 kg

Solution 2

The average rainfall of nearly 100 cm or 1 m is recorded by meteorologists, during Monsoon, in India.

If A is the area of the country, then A = 3.3 million sq. km = 3.3 x 106(km)2 = 3.3 x 10x 106m2= 3.3 x 1012m2

Mass of rain-bearing clouds = area x height x density = 3.3 x 1012 x 1 x 1000 kg = 3.3 x 1015 kg.

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NCERT Class 11 Physics Textbook
Chapter 2 Units and Measurements
Q 22.1 | Page 37
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