How does the triarchic theory help us to understand intelligence?
Robert J. Sternberg proposes a theory of intelligence based on information processing approach in 1985 known as the Triarchic theory of intelligence.
According to Sternberg, intelligence is an ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish ones goals and those of ones society and culture.
This theory attempts to understand the cognitive processes involved in problem solving.
According to him there are three types of intelligences :-
1. Componential intelligence (Analytical) :- This dimension specifies the cognitive processes that underlie an intelligent behaviour. This dimension serves three different functions:-
- Knowledge acquisition components :- These are the processes used in learning, encoding, combining and comparing information.
- Metacomponents :- ‘Meta’ means higher. These are executive processes. They control monitor and evaluate cognitive processing.
- Performance components :- These components execute strategies prepared by metacomponents to perform a task.For example, While studying students plan the lesson chapterwise, they make schedules, categories the learning material and do integrate the information to comprehend well.
2. Experiential intelligence (Creative) :- This dimension specifies how experiences effect intelligence and how intelligence effects a person’s experiences.
- Experiential intelligence refers to an individual’s ability to make use of one’s past experiences to deal with novel situations creatively and effectively.
- This intelligence is mostly high among scientists and creative people.
- For example if a person is trapped in a room, he finds out a way of coming out of the room using rope or ladder etc. in a creative way. He had some knowledge of getting out from this situation by watching out a movie few years back.
3. Contextual intelligence (Practical) :- This dimension specifies the ability to deal with environmental demands on daily basis.
- It is individual’s ability to make use of his/her potential to deal with day-to-day life.
- It may be called street smartness or ‘business sense’.
- People high in this ability are successful in life.
- It deals with the ways people handle effectively their environmental demands and adapt to different contexts with available resources.