Explain briefly the multiple intelligences identified by Gardner ?
Gardner’s theory based on information processing approaches functions on three basic principles:-
- Intelligence is not a single entity, there exist multiple intelligences.
- The intelligences are independent from each other.
- Different types of intelligences work together to provide a solution of problem.
Gardner has so far proposed eight intelligences, however all individuals do not possess them in equal proportion. The particular situation or the context decides the prominence of one type of intelligence over the others.
Following are the eight types of intelligence :-
- Linguistic :- This is related to reading, writing, listening, talking, understanding etc. Poets exhibit this ability better than others.
- Logical-Mathematical :- This type of intelligence deals with abstract reasoning and manipulation of symbols involved in numerical problems. It is exhibited in scientific work.
- Spatial :- This type of intelligence is involved in perceiving third dimension formation of images. It is used while navigating in space, forming, transforming and using mental images. Sailors, engineers, surgeons, pilots, care drivers, sculptors and painters have highly developed spatial intelligence.
- Musical :- Persons with musical intelligence show sensitivity to pitch and tone required for singing, playing and instrument, composing and appreciating music etc.
- Bodily Kinesthetic :- It requires the skills and dexterity for fine coordinated motor movements, such as those required for dancing, athletics, surgery, craft making etc.
- Inter-personal :- It requires understanding of motives, feelings and behaviours of other people.sales people, politicians, teachers, clinicians and religious readers have high degree of inter-personal intelligence.
- Intra-personal :- It is related to understanding one’s self and developing a sense of identity, e.g., philosophers and spiritual leaders.
- Naturalistic :- It is related to recognizing the flora and fauna, i.e., natural world and making a distinction in the natural world. It is more possessed by hunters, farmers, tourists, students of biological sciences etc.