'The Universe Has Necessarily a Beginning and an End and "The Universe Has Boundary Together Imply - Logical Reasoning


'The Universe has necessarily a beginning and an end and "the Universe has boundary together imply


  • The universe is finite in space and time

  • The universe is infinite in space and time

  • The universe is infinite in space but not in time

  • The universe is finite in Space but not in time



The universe is finite in space and time


The Universe has necessarily a beginning and an end and 'the Universe has boundary' together implies 'the Universe is finite in space and time.

Concept: Critical Reasoning (Entrance Exam)
  Is there an error in this question or solution?


The question in this section is based on the reasoning contained in brief statement or passages. For the question, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the best answer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answer the question. You should not make assumptions that are by common sense standards implausible, superfluous or incompatible with the passage.

Science columnist: It is clear why humans have so many diseases in common with cats. Many human diseases are genetically based, and cats are genetically closer to humans than are any other mammals except nonhuman primates. Each of the genes identified so far in cats has an exact counterpart in humans. Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the science columnist's explanation for the claim that humans have so many diseases in common with cats?

In the question, two statements are given. There may or may not cause and effect relationship between the two statements. Mark your answer using this code.

Statement I: Rate of crime is very low in this city.

Statement II: The police is efficient in this city.

Four statements are given below. One of them can be demonstrated with the help of reason, while another requires sense experience to ascertain the truth, Identify them.

A. Ravana killed Rama.

B. Area of circle is given by the formula `pi "r"^2`

C. Methane is poisonous

D. The absolute is pure consciousness

Suleiman: All Communists are atheists.

Sheeba: That is not true.

Which of the following, if true, would make Sheeba’s reply the most convincing?

Statement 1: All pingos are Byronic.

Statement 2: Shalisto is byronic.

Statement 3: Therefore_________.

Fill in the blank.

Child labour is only a reflection of the malaise in society. Which of the following, supports the above statement

An argument is given below, on the basis of that argument; find out the parallel argument from the given list of subsequent arguments

Argument: Himalayan Sparrows are disappearing. This bird is an Indian bird; therefore, Indian birds are disappearing.

Subsequent Arguments:

Mayor: Local anti-tobacco activists are calling for expanded antismoking education programs paid for by revenue from heavily increased taxes on cigarettes sold in the city. Although the effectiveness of such education programs is debatable, there is strong evidence that the taxes themselves would produce the soughtafter reduction in smoking. Surveys show that cigarette sales drop substantially in cities that impose stiff tax increases on cigarettes. Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the reason-ing in the argument above?

In the following question, it has a statement followed by two conclusion. Taking the statement to be true, decide which of the given conclusions definitely follows from the given statement. Indicate your answer as

Statement: The Supreme Court gave a judgement that the maintenance of old age parents is the responsibility of the married girls if they do not have brothers.


I. Constitution is always interpreted to help oppressed people out.

II. Before the Supreme Court gave the verdict, a married girl must have denied paying for the maintenance to her parents.

The question given below has a  statement followed by two conclusions I and II. Consider the statement and the following conclusions. Decide which of the conclusions follow from the statement.

A degree in law is of the most wanted degrees by youth in  India.   
I. A degree in law guarantees a good profession.   
II. A degree in law is the first choice for youth in India. 

Statement Government has spoiled many top-ranking financial institutions by appointing bureaucrats as directors of these institutions. 

I. Government should appoint directors of the financial institutes taking into consideration the expertise of the person in the area of finance.   
II. The director of the financial institution should have expertise commensurate with the financial work carried out by the institute. 

At birth we have no self-image. We cannot distinguish anything from the confusion of light and sound around us.  From this beginning of no-dimension, we gradually begin to differentiate our body from our environment and develop a sense of identity, with the realization that we are a separate and independent human being. We then begin to develop a  conscience, the sense of right and wrong. Further, we develop social consciousness, where we become aware that we live with other people. Finally, we develop a sense of values,  which is our overall estimation of our worth in the world.  Which one of the following would be the best completion of this passage?

To be admitted to Bigshot University, you must have a 3.5  grade-point average (GPA) and a score of 800 on the admission test, a 3.0 GPA and a score of 1.000 on the admission test, or a 2.5 GPA and a score of 1,200 on the admission test. A sliding scale exists for the other scores and GPAs.   
Which one of the following is inconsistent with the above?

Only 75 years ago, the best fishing in the world was the  Grand Banks of the North Atlantic. But now overfishing and man’s pollution have decimated the area. There will be no fishing industry in the Americas in a few years. The waters off New foundland now yield less than the catch of five years ago, and less than one-quarter of the total of ten years ago.  The cod has almost disappeared. The numbers of fishermen in New foundland and New England have declined, and their yearly earnings are now at an all-time low. Yet radar has made fishing methods more efficient than ever.   
Which one of the following identifies most clearly a faulty assumption in the reasoning of this passage?

Archaeologists have come to the support of Arctic anthropologists. A small minority of anthropologists assert that Stone Age tribes of the Arctic domesticated wolves and trained them to haul sleds. Excavations have recently found evidence to support this claim. Archaeologists have found wolf bones near the site of a Stone Age village. They have also found walrus bones that might have been used on primitive sleds. The small minority of anthropologists believe that their theories have been proved.   
Which one of the following is true of the evidence cited in the paragraph above? 

Read the question below very carefully and choose the correct answer.

Further, you come across three women, one of whom is an excellent singer, you start questioning them when you notice that Minaxi is wearing a flower in her hair.   
Madhuri: I am not a singer. The singer wears a flower in her hair.   
Minaxi: I am a singer. The singer is amongst us.   
Jaya: Madhuri is the singer. Minaxi is not the singer.   

Who is the singer? 

Read the question below very carefully and choose the correct answer.

You want to expand your horizons and decide to go to the village of “Where is Who” which is deep inside the island.  You come to the border of “Kya Kya” and see a road sign.  One leads to left and the other right. there are no other roads. You ask the inhabitants.   
Maroof: I do not speak to strangers. I am new to these  parts  
Nafish: Take road to the right. I am married to Ayesha.   
Ayesha: I am not Nafish’s wife. Maroof is not new to these parts.   

Which one of the following is true?

In the following question, two statements I and II are provided. These may have a cause and effect relationship or may have independent causes.

Statement I: The price of Bronze has gone up from  30,000 per kg to 60,000 per kg in almost a year’s time.   
Statement II: Indian sculptors are receiving a lot of demand for bronze statues from English and Russian art collectors. 

In the following question, two statements I and II are provided. These may have a cause and effect relationship or may have independent causes.

Statement I: Hallmark of gold jewellry has been made  compulsory,
Statement II: Many persons do not prefer to buy hallmarked jewellery.

Given below is a passage followed by several inferences, You have to examine the inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. 

In a proposal to Government of Xovia, Association of Xovian Industry (AXI) has suggested a series of short and long-term initiatives to help the states to cope up with the specter of drought in the country, particularly in the North. It has come out with a paper on ‘How to tackle drought’ and recommended the cultivation of selected crops such as short-duration paddy and irrigated dry crops in the focus areas besides subsidization of their seeds by 50%. Other short-term measures include a food-for-work program with the investment of relevant departments and rural bodies, the setting up of a task force headed by top government officials to monitor the drought relief program, the scrapping of schemes that facilitates subsidized power supply to irrigation pump set connection in water-scarce blocks to ensure power supply for drinking water schemes and ban on export of fodder. In fact, fodder should be mobilized from all sources and cattle sheds should be opened wherever needed, Employment affirmation program should be launched with central assistance. If possible, interest on loans taken by farmers should be waived besides converting the short-term loans into long-term ones, It is necessary to work out a way to take over the loans taken from primitive money lenders or reschedule them. Coming to long-term steps, the AXI paper says new water resources be explored besides building water supply projects and creating rainwater storage facilities. Dryland cultivation ought to be promoted apart from popularizing water-saving irrigation technologies.

To cope up with the specter of drought, we should devise both short-term and long-term policies.


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