"The jotedars were more effective than that of zamindars in the villages." Examine the statement in the context of Permanent Settlement. - History

Short Note

“The power of the Jotedars was more effective than that of the zamindars.” Justify the statement with suitable arguments.

"The jotedars were more effective than that of zamindars in the villages." Examine the statement in the context of Permanent Settlement.



  1. Jotedars were located in the villages, unlike zamindars.
  2. Jotedars exercised direct control over a considerable section of poor villagers.
  3. They fiercely resisted efforts by zamindars to increase the jama of the village.
  4. They prevented zamindari officials from executing their duties.
  5. They mobilised ryots who were dependent on them.
  6. They deliberately delayed payments of revenue to the zamindar.
  7. Jotedars were often amongst the purchasers in the auction of land.
Concept: Bengal and the Zamindars
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2022-2023 (March) Sample


Answer in 100-150 Words

Why Was the Jotedar a Powerful Figure in Many Areas of Rural Bengal?

Answer in 100-150 Words

How Did Zamindars Manage to Retain Control Over Their Zamindaris?

Answer in 100-150 Words

How Did the Paharias Respond to the Coming of Outsiders?

Write a short essay (250-300 words) on the following:

 Why were many zamindaris auctioned after the Permanent Settlement?

Who introduced the Permanent Settlement in Bengal?

Which of the following statements related to Santhals is incorrect?

Who among the following was the leader of the Santhal rebellion?

Match the following.

(i) cutcheries (a) peasant
(ii) Jumma (b) moneylender
(iii) Sahukar (c) court
(iv) ryot (d) assessment

Choose the correct option.

When was Fifth Report introduced in the British Parliament?

Who among the following emerged as a danger for Paharis?

When was the permanent settlement introduced in Bengal?

Who Introduced Permanent Settlement in Bengal?

Consider the following options.

  1. The fifth report submitted to the British Parliament in 1813 AD.
  2. Jotedars were quite powerful.
  3. Santhals were a great danger to Paharis.
  4. No Zamindari was auctioned in Bengal.

Consider the following events:

  1. Introduction of Permanent settlement
  2. American Civil war
  3. Fifth report in the British Parliament
  4. Santhals arrived in the hilly area of Rajmahal

The correct Chronological order of these events is?

Critically analyse the Fifth Report which was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813.

Examine the policies adopted by the British towards Paharias during 18th century.

What was being auctioned in Burdwan in 1797?

Why couldn't ryots pay dues to the Zamindars?

Match the following.

List I List II
A. Fifth Report 1. 1793
B. Permanent Settlement 2. 1813
C. American Civil War 3. 1856
D. Santhal Rebellion 4. 1861

Consider the following statements regarding the early years of the East India Company establishment in India:

I. The colonial rule was first established in The Bengal.

II. In the beginning, the earliest attempts were made to reorder rural society and establish a new regime of land rights and a new revenue system.

III. The Permanent Settlement had come into operation in 1793. The East India Company had fixed the revenue that each zamindar had to pay.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Who was the ruler of England at the time when the East India Company got permission to trade with India?

When was the East India Company acquired a charter from the ruler of England?

Consider the following statements regarding the failure of revenue payment by zamindars:

I. Initially, the company made very high initial demand because if the demand was fixed for all time to come, the Company would never be able to claim a share of increased income from land when prices rose and cultivation expanded.

II. The high demand was imposed in the 1790s, a time when the prices of agricultural produce were depressed, making it difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the zamindar.

III. The revenue was invariable, regardless of the harvest, and had to be paid punctually. In fact, according to the Sunset Law, if payment did not come in by sunset of the specified date, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?

Which among the following was the first province of India where colonial rule was established?

Assertion (A): Zamindars defaulted on payments in the Permanent Settlement.

Reason (R): Prices of the agricultural produce were low.

Read the given source and answer the questions that follow: 

From the Fifth Reports

Referring to the condition of zamindars and the auction of lands, the Fifth Report stated:

The revenue was not realised with punctuality, and lands to a considerable extent were periodically exposed to sale by auction. In the native year 1203, corresponding with 1796-97, the land advertised for sale comprehended a jumma or assessment of sicca rupees 28,70,061, the extent of land actually sold bore a jumma or assessment of 14,18,756, and the amount of purchase money sicca rupees 17,90,416. In 1204, corresponding with 1797-98, the land advertised was for sicca rupees 26,66,191, the quantity sold was for sicca rupees 22,74,076, and the purchase money sicca rupees 21,47,580. Among the defaulters were some of the oldest families of the country. Such were the rajahs of Nuddea, Rajeshaye, Bishenpore (all districts of Bengal), … and others, the dismemberment of whose estates at the end of each succeeding year, threatened them with poverty and ruin, and in some instances presented difficulties to the revenue officers, in their efforts to preserve undiminished the amount of public assessment.

  1. Examine the reason for calling it as a 'Fifth Report'. 
  2. Why were activities of East India company closely debated in England?
  3. Analyse any two limitations of this report.

Identify the British official with the help of the following information and select the correct option:

  • He was Physician, came to Iridia during 1794 to 1815. 
  • He server in Bengal Medical Services.
  • He served as Surgeon to the Lord Wellesley.
  • He organised 'Calcutta Alipore Zoo'.

With reference to the role of the British officers in India, match Column-B with column-A, by using the codes given below.

Column-A Column-B
A. Lord Cornwallis 1. Observer
B. Augustus Cleveland 2. Economist
C. Francis Buchanan 3. Governor General
of Benga
D. David Ricardo 4. Policy of Pacification


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