The bromine atom possesses 35 electrons. It contains 6 electrons in 2p orbital, 6 electrons in 3p orbital and 5 electrons in 4p orbital. Which of these electron experiences the lowest effective nuclear charge?
Nuclear charge experienced by an electron (present in a multi-electron atom) is dependant upon the distance between the nucleus and the orbital, in which the electron is present. As the distance increases, the effective nuclear charge also decreases.
Among p-orbitals, 4p orbitals are farthest from the nucleus of bromine atom with (+35) charge. Hence, the electrons in the 4p orbital will experience the lowest effective nuclear charge. These electrons are shielded by electrons present in the 2p and 3porbitals along with the s-orbitals. Therefore, they will experience the lowest nuclear charge.
4p electrons, being farthest from the nucleus experience the lowest effective nuclear charge.
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