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Taking an example of a small pond, explain how the four components of an ecosystem function as a unit. - Biology

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Taking an example of a small pond, explain how the four components of an ecosystem function as a unit.

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Solution

Various aspects are taken into consideration to study the functioning of the ecosystem:
(1) Productivity
(2) Decomposition
(3) Energy flow
(4) Nutrient cycling
Productivity: In a pond ecosystem, phytoplankton captures the energy of the Sun for photosynthesis. Thus, they contribute to primary productivity.
Energy flow: Phytoplankton are then consumed by zooplankton. Zooplanktons are eaten by small fish, which are in turn eaten by large fish. Hence, there is a constant flow of energy between different trophic levels. Decomposition and nutrient cycling: When any organism dies at any trophic level, the various microbes present in the pond water decompose the dead remains. The nutrients which are released in the process of decomposition are again available to the producers for primary productivity.

Concept: Ecosystem – Structure and Function
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