State what is apomixis. Comment on its significance. How can it be commercially used? - Biology

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State what is apomixis. Comment on its significance. How can it be commercially used?

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Solution

Apomixis is the mode of reproduction which does not involve formation of zygote through gametic fusion.
Significance of apomixis:
(i) Adventives embryos are better clones than cuttings.
(ii) Embryos formed through apomixes are generally free from infections.
Hybrid varieties provide higher and better yield. If hybrid seeds are produced ever year, they do not maintain hybrid characters because of segregation of traits. Moreover, production of hybrid seeds every year is very costly. This can be avoided by introducing apomixes in hybrid seeds.

Concept: Polyembryony
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2014-2015 (March) All India Set 1

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Answer the following question:

Define Apomixis.


Define the Polyembryony.


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When a seed of orange is squeezed, many embryos, instead of one are observed. Explain how it is possible.


State what is apomixis. Write its significance. How can it be commercially used?


Short Answer Question:

How polyembryony can be commercially exploited?


Fill in the blank:

The _________ collect the pollen grains.


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The pollen grains represent the ________.


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The ________contains the egg or ovum.


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The ______ is the base of the flower to which other floral parts are attached.


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________is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of the flower to the stigma of the same or a different flower


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The ______ are coloured to attract the insects that carry the pollen. Some flowers also produce ______ or ______ that attracts insects.


Match the column.

Column - I
(Structure before seed formation)
Column - II
(Structure after seed formation)
A. Funiculus I. Hilum
B. Scar of ovule II. Tegmen
C. Zygote III. Testa
D. Inner integument IV. Stalk of seed
    V. Embryo

What is adventive polyembryony?


Which of the following is TRUE with respect to cleavage polyembryony?


Apomixis is a type of reproduction that results is the development of a/an ______.


The polyembryony commonly occurs in ______.


The occurrence of two or more embryos in one ovule is called ______


Adventive polyembryony in citrus is due to ______.


In case of polyembryony, if an embryo develops from the synergid and another from the nucellus which is haploid and which is diploid?


What is polyembryony and how can it be commercially exploited?


What is pollen grain?


The plant part which consists of two generations, one within the other-

  1. Pollen grains inside the anther.
  2. Germinated pollen grain with two male gametes.
  3. Seed inside the fruit.
  4. Embryo sac inside the ovule

Choose the correct option.


Explain following term:

Polyembryony


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