State the location and function of different types of meristems.
Meristems are specialised regions of plant growth. The meristems mark the regions where active cell division and rapid division of cells take place. Meristems are of three types depending on their location.
It is present at the root apex and the shoot apex. The shoot apical meristem is present at the tip of the shoots and its active division results in the elongation of the stem and formation of new leaves. The root apical meristem helps in root elongation.
It is present between the masses of mature tissues present at the bases of the leaves of grasses. It helps in the regeneration of grasses after they have been grazed by herbivores. Since the intercalary meristem and the apical meristem appear early in a plant’s life, they constitute the primary meristem.
It appears in the mature tissues of roots and shoots. It is called the secondary meristem as it appears later in a plant’s life. It helps in adding secondary tissues to the plant body and in increasing the girth of plants. Examples include fascicular cambium, interfascicular cambium, and cork cambium